“Please contribute research content to the Mark Lombardi Memorial Library, by scanning some of the out-of-print historical titles below, and share them in popular file formats, towards creating a searchable online database of Mark Lombardi’s areas of research. One also might participate by mirroring these scans online somewhere safe tagged #marklombardimemoriallibrary (fair use historical research). Thanks for any assistance.” – Linda Lovelace

From the Rockefeller Family’s MoMA collection website (who have all of Mark’s hand-written index cards safely locked up in the basement, available for viewing ‘upon request’ (good luck)): “These scandals, such as Whitewater or the Vatican Bank, were researched by Lombardi in an exhaustive manner, from a range of sources in the public domain, the Findings then being stored in an extensive filing card system. After establishing the key connections and relations between powerful figures, Lombardi would then schematize these by means of circles containing names of individuals and organisations, joined by connecting lines.

straight lines indicate direct influence
lines indicate financial connections
lines indicate frozen assets
& red indicate lawsuits, bankruptcy and death

by Sarah Schmerler / 05/15/12

When Mark Lombardi died, at the age of 48, he left behind a controversial body of work—large-scale, maplike drawings that chart connections between the worlds of international banking, organized crime, arms dealing, terrorism, oil, and government—the result of countless hours of research distilled into spartan webs of pencil lines and text. He also left a legacy shrouded in conjecture and mystery. Did he take his own life in his Brooklyn apartment on the night of March 22, 2000, or were there more insidious forces at work? What did a woman claiming to be an FBI agent hope to find when she called the Whitney Museum of American Art, owner of one of Lombardi’s most epic drawings, soon after 9/11, asking to study the piece? A new feature-length documentary, called Mark Lombardi: Death-defying Acts of Art and Conspiracy, takes on these and other questions, and spotlights the sinister links found in Lombardi’s art.

German director and writer Mareike Wegener worked with a small crew for two and a half years to shoot the film, conducting interviews with most everyone who was in some way close to Lombardi: New York–based artists Rafael Vargas-Suarez, Greg Stone, Fred Tomaselli, and James Siena; the owners of Brooklyn’s Pierogi Gallery, Joe Amrhein and Susan Swenson; art historian Robert Hobbs; and Lombardi’s dry-eyed and stunningly honest parents and siblings, in his childhood hometown outside Syracuse, New York. “The visit to his parents was one of the most fraught times, but also turned out to be one of the most rewarding times of the film. All were really up front,” Wegener says. “They were concerned with the possibility of my scandalizing things. But if you look at Lombardi’s work,” she adds, “he’s really de-scandalizing things. He’s putting things together in a very subtle way, and that’s something I’m doing in the film, too.”

Mark Lombardi's index cards, with notes from his research on the activities of individuals and groups implicated in the financial scandals he was investigating, 1998-2001. Photograph by John Berens. Courtesy of Donald Lombardi and Pierogi Gallery.Mark Lombardi’s index cards, with notes from his research on the activities of individuals and groups implicated in the financial scandals he was investigating, 1998-2001. Photograph by John Berens. Courtesy of Donald Lombardi and Pierogi Gallery.

Wegener intersperses the interviews with archival news footage that illustrates events detailed in the drawings—Manuel Noriega giving a speech, Oliver North testifying before Congress at the Iran-contra hearings, executives of the First American Bank in a great hurry to leave a courthouse, black-hooded foreign soldiers toting guns—edited in such a way that the clips cycle back and repeat, echoing the formal structure of the drawings. “Mark never talked about people hijacking planes and crashing them into buildings,” says Vargas-Suarez in the film, referring to 9/11, “but he knew about the activities of how these things would be financed. . . . He had a vast knowledge of the networks that would create a scenario like this. His work was showing you the abuses of power. And some of the same people that you see on the news making trouble in different parts of the world—they’re all in the works.”

by Uri Dowbenko / 2003

“One of the drawings called “George W. Bush, Harken Energy and Jackson Stephens, ca 1979-90” (1999) shows the connections of James Bath, a former CIA spook and business broker, front man for Saudi money who connected the Bush Family and Bin Laden Family (of the Osama bin Laden/ 9-11 legend) in shady deals in Texas and around the world. Other drawings document the Savings and Loan (S&L) Frauds, IraqGate Fraud (illicit sales of nuclear and biological weapons to Iraqi kingpin Saddam Hussein with a $5 billion US Government-guaranteed phony “agricultural loan” through the Banca Nazionale de Lavoro), Iran Contra Fraud, and the Clinton/ Jackson Stephens Frauds. Lombardi was an artist and an archivist, not an investigative reporter; he simply used available material from books and newspaper articles (from the public record) for the information “content” of his work. Viewing his art (mostly un-inked pencil drawings) requires the ability to 1/ see the graphics, 2/ read the names of people and corporate fronts, and then 3/ integrate this content of networks into an epiphany about How the Real World Works.

Historically, of course, the Harken Stock Fraud made George W. Bush his first serious chunk of money. It should be also noted that Bath, a former cokehead pal of George Jr., was also connected with the notorious Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) Fraud. Lombardi’s web-like drawings show the decentralized nature of the networks of crime and flows of global capital. The key is a multitude of front companies, which add layers of complexity to the conspiracies themselves. Allegedly diagnosed with bipolar disorder (manic depression), Lombardi supposedly died from suicide (or was suicided) in 1999 — after two successful solo shows and just as his career was about to go to the next level. It should also be noted that Jim Hatfield, author of “Fortunate Son,” (Soft Skull Press), a biography of George W. Bush, which alleged that George Bush Jr. was convicted in Texas on cocaine charges, until his record disappeared from the court system, was also found dead by suicide in an Oklahoma motel.

Artist Mark Lombardi (1951-2000), whose business card ironically read “Death Defying Acts of Art and Conspiracy,” was found dead in his studio, officially declared a suicide in the police report. Or as government whistleblower Al Martin, author of “The Conspirators: Secrets of an Iran Contra Insider” ( says, “The guy put together one chart too many.” Martin was retained by attorney Frank Rubino, defense counsel for Panamanian strongman Antonio Noriega, to produce a chart for the courtroom, which would explain the complex relationships between individuals and offshore companies, etc. The 5’ x 9’ chart was topped off by a color photo of former president George Herbert Walker Bush and Antonio Noriega embracing one another, both giving a victory sign to the camera. It should be noted that US troops under George Bush invaded Panama, then hijacked Noriega to Florida, where he was convicted of drug charges. Noriega is still in prison to this day. “When they set up this chart in the courtroom, the judge said, what’s that? We had Bush connected to this drug operation,” recalls Martin. Martin says that later CIA operative Frank Snepp joined the defense team (Rubino himself was a former CIA agent) and gave daily reports to George Bush Sr. on how the trial against Noriega was proceeding. Martin says he overheard him on the phone talking to Bush in Rubino’s office. “I was real naive,” says Martin about his participation in the Noriega trial. “I made the assumption that this is what they wanted” — to have a flow chart of personnel, covert operations, as well as banks and other front companies and how the schemes actually worked. Martin notes that they didn’t really expect him to use the real names of people and front companies. “Investigative reporter Dave Lyons from the Miami Herald told me this is what people can understand,” Martin continues. “Graphs and charts help the average person understand complex conspiracies Martin jokingly concludes, “Charts and graphs — bad. Shredders – good.”

In a video of the artist shown at the exhibition, Andy Mann asked Lombard in February 1997, “Do you fear for your life?” Lombardi didn’t answer the question. Instead he said, “This is a way I can map the political and social terrain in which I live.” According to his friends, Lombardi told them that he was being followed — just before his death. Lombardi also described his work as “visualized fields of information [which] started out as corporate diagrams.” In the end, Mark Lombardi’s contribution to culture is his relentless search for the truth. He was a pioneer in the cartography of realpolitik, mapping international networks of crime which include high-level government officials and shady so-called “business” men. Lombardi’s legacy is his depiction of geo-political realities, the essence of global criminal conspiracies. No theory, just conspiracy –- conspiracies that continue to haunt the planet into the 21st century.

Most helpful critical review: Lombardi’s Legacy Demands A Bigger Book

“I really like Mark Lombardi’s artwork, but buyer beware–the dimensions of this book are a mere 11 x 9.2 x 0.4 inches. Mr. Lombardi’s work is relatively large by comparison. For this book, his pieces have been shrunk to where it is almost impossible to read what’s been written in the nodes of the networks. Each featured piece is instead explained by the authors, with the occasional enlargement of a section for clarification. This seems contrary to the spirit of Mr. Lombardi’s work. I was expecting this book to at least have fold-out pages, but no such luck. The artwork is completely subordinate to the authors’ verbose text. So if you want to READ about Mark Lombardi and his work, and get a little information design history lesson in too, then this book will do just fine. But if you want to actually LOOK at Mark Lombardi’s artwork, look elsewhere. I think I will be reselling this book.”

held by pierogi2000, brooklyn ny – bibliography compiled by Robert Hobbs

[artists note: if the book only discusses art, and doesn’t mention crime at all, perhaps skip it ]

Aarons, Mark and John Loftus – Unholy Trinity: How the Vatican’s Nazi Networks Betrayed Western Intelligence to the Soviets. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991.

Aburish, Saïd K. The Rise, Corruption, and Coming Fall of the House of Saud. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 1994, rpt. 1996.

Adams, James Ring, and Douglas Frantz. A Full Service Bank: How BCCI Stole Billions Around the World. New York, London, Toronto: Pocket Books, a division of Simon & Schuster, Inc., 1993.

Adams, James Ring. The Big Fix: Inside the S&L Scandal: How an Unholy Alliance of Politics and Money Destroyed America’s Banking System. New York, Chichester, Brisbane: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1990, rpt. 1991.

Adams, James. Bull’s Eye: The Assassination and Life of Supergun Inventor Gerald Bull. New York: Times Books, a division of Random House, Inc., 1992.

Adams, James. The Financing of Terror. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1984.

Agee, Philip. Inside the Company: CIA Diary. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, Ltd., 1975.

Allport, Jeff. A Guide for the Perplexed: News Production at Dow Jones. South Brunswick, New Jersey, 1987.

Altick, Richard D. The Shows of London. Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England: Belknap Press, 1978.

Anarchy: A Journal of Desire Armed.

Anderson, Jack with George Clifford. The Anderson Papers. New York: Random House, 1973.

Arendt, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism. Cleveland and New York: Meridian Books, The World Publishing Company, 1951, 2nd ed., 1958.

Arlacchi, Piño, and Antonio Calderone. Men of Dishonor: Inside the Sicilian Mafia, trans. Marc Romano. New York: Morrow, 1993.

Arostegui, Martin C. Twilight Warriors: Inside the World’s Special Forces. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995.

Baker, Bobby, with Larry L. King. Wheeling and Dealing: Confessions of a Capitol Hill Operator. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1978.

Bamford, James. The Puzzle Palace: A Report on America’s Most Secret Agency. New York: Penguin Books, Ltd., 1983.

Barry, Tom and Deb Preusch. The Soft War: The Uses and Abuses of U.S. Economic Aid in Central America. New York: Grove Press: 1988.

Baudrillard, Jean. The Evil Demon of Images. Power Institute, 1987.

Beaty, Jonathan, and S.C. Gwynne. The Outlaw Bank: A Wild Ride into the Secret Heart of BCCI. New York: Random House, 1993.

Bellett, Gerald. Age of Secrets: The Conspiracy that Toppled Richard Nixon and the Hidden Death of Howard Hughes. Maitland, Ontario and Ogdensburg, New York: Voyageur North America, 1995.

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Boettcher, Robert, with Gordon L. Freedman. Gifts of Deceit: Sun Myung Moon, Tongsum Park and the Korean Scandal. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston, 1980.

Boulton, David. The Grease Machine: The Inside Story of Lockheed’s Dollar Diplomacy. New York, Hagerstown, San Francisco, London: Harper & Row Publishers, 1978.

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Branch, Taylor and Eugene M. Propper. Labyrinth. New York, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books Ltd., 1982.

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Brogan, Patrick, and Albert Zarca. Deadly Business: Sam Cummings’ Interarms and the Arms Trade. New York and London: W.W. Norton & Company, 1983.

Browenstein, Ronald and Nina Easton. Reagan’s Ruling Class: Portraits of the President’s Top One Hundred Officials. New York: Pantheon Books, 1982, revised 1983.

Bruck, Connie. The Predators’ Ball: The Junk Bond Raiders and the Men who Staked Them. New York, London, Toronto: The American Lawyer and Simon & Schuster, 1988.

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Chomsky, Noam. Towards a New Cold War: Essays on the Current Crisis and How We Got There. New York: Pantheon Books: 1973, rpt. 1982.

Chomsky, Noam.Turning the Tide: U.S. Intervention in Central America and the Struggle for Peace. Boston: South End Press, 1985.

Chomsky, Noam. The Culture of Terrorism. Boston: South End Press, 1988.

Clarke, Thurston and John J. Tigue. Jr. Dirty Money: Swiss Banks, the Mafia, Money Laundering and White Collar Crime. New York; Simon & Schuster, 1975.

Clarkson, Wensley. The Valkyrie Operation. London: Blake Publishing, Ltd., 1998.

Cockburn, Andrew and Leslie. Dangerous Liason: The Inside Story of the U.S.-Israeli Covert Relationship. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1991.

Cohen, William S. and George J. Mitchell. Men of Zeal: A Candid Inside Story of the Iran-Contra Hearings. New York: Penguin Books, 1989.

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Ellison, Katherine. Imelda: The Steel Butterfly of the Phillipines. New York, St. Louis, San Francisco: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1988.

Emerson, Steve. The American House of Saud: The Secret Petrodollar Connection. New York, Toronto, London: Franklin Watts, 1985.

Faith, Nicholas. Safety in Numbers: The Mysterious World of Swiss Banking. New York: The Viking Press, 1982.

Fay, Steven. Beyond Greed. New York: Penguin Books, 1982.

Fehrenbach, T.R. The Swiss Banks. New York, London, Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1966.

Fifth Estate. Detroit, Michigan: Fifth Estate Newspaper, 1965Ñ.

Fortune, eds. The Conglomerate Commotion. New York: The Viking Press, Inc., 1970.

Franco, Joseph, with Richard Hammer. Hoffa’s Man: The Rise and Fall of Jimmy Hoffa as Witnessed by his Strongest Arm. New York: Prentice Hall Press, 1987.

Friedman, Alan. Spider’s Web: The Secret History of How the White House Illegally Armed Iraq. New York, Toronto, London: Bantam Books, 1993.

Fry, Edward F., and Hans Haacke. Werkmonographie. München: Verlag M. DuMont Schauberg, 1972.

Giancana, Samuel M. and Chuck Giancana. Double Cross: The Explosive, Inside Story of the Mobster who Controlled America. New York: Warner Books, 1992.

Gould, Jennifer. Vodka, Tears, and Lenin’s Angel: A Journalist on the Road in the Former Soviet Union. Canada: Alfred A. Knopf, 1997.

Goulden, Joseph C., with Alexander W. Raffio. The Death Merchant: The Rise and Fall of Edwin P. Wilson. New York: Simon & Schuster: 1984.

Grant, Dale. Wilderness of Mirrors: The Life of Gerald Bull. Scarborough, Ontario: Prentice-Hall Canada, Inc., 1991.

Bertram Gross. Friendly Fascism: The New Face of Power in America. New York: M. Evans and Company, Inc., 1980.

Haines, Joe. Maxwell. London: MacDonald, 1988.

Haley, J. Evetts. A Texan Looks at Lyndon: A Study in Illegitimate Power. Canyon, Texas: The Palo Duro Press,

Hall, Richard. My Life with Tiny: A Biography of Tiny Rowland. London and Boston: Faber and Faber, 1987.

Halloran, Paul and Mark Hollingsworth. Thatcher’s Gold: The Life and Times of Mark Thatcher. London, Sydney, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.

Halperin, Mortin H., Jerry J. Berman, Robert L. Borosage, and Christine M. Marwick. The Lawless State: The Crimes of the U.S. Intelligence Agencies. New York: Penguin Books, Ltd., 1976.

Hammer, Richard. The Vatican Connection. New York: Charter Books, by arrangement with Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1983.

Harding, Luke, David Leigh, and David Pallister. The Liar: The Fall of Jonathan Aitken. London: Penguin Books, 1997.

Hector, Gary. Breaking the Bank: The Decline of BankAmerica. Boston & Toronto: Little, Brown and Company, 1988.

Henderson, Paul. The Unlikely Spy: Paul Henderson: An Autobiography. London: Bloomsbury, 1993.

Hendricks, Jon. Fluxus, Etc.: The Gilbert and Lila Silverman Collection, Cranbrook Academy of Art Museum. September 20–November 1, 1981. Bloomfield Hills, Michigan: Cranbrook Academy of Art Museum, 1981.

Herman, Edward S. The Real Terror Network: Terrorism in Fact and Propoganda. Boston: South End Press, 1988.

_____ and Noam Chomsky. Manufacturing Consent. New York: Pantheon Books, 1988.

Herzog, Arthur. Vesco: From Wall Street to Castro’s Cuba: The Rise, Fall, and Exile of the King of White Collar Crime. New York, Doubleday, 1987.

Hobbs, Robert Carelton, and Gail Levin. Abstract Expressionism: The Formative Years. Ithica, New York: Herbert G. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University, and Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 1978.

Hoffman, Abbie [Free, pseud.]. Revolution for the Hell of It. New York: The Dial Press, Inc., 1968.

Hoffman, Abbie. Soon to be a Major Motion Picture. New York: A Perigree Book, published by G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1980.

Horowitz, Leonard G. Emerging Viruses: AIDS and Ebola: Nature, Accident, or Intentional? Rockport, MA: Tetrahedon, Inc., 1997.

Hougan, Jim. Secret Agenda: Watergate, Deep Throat and the CIA. New York: Random House, 1984.

Hougan, Jim. Spooks: The Haunting of America–The Private Use of Secret Agents. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1978.

Howowitz, Lois. Knowing Where to Look: The Ultimate Guide to Research. Cincinnati, Ohio: Writer’s Digest Books, 1984.

Hulbert, Mark. Interlock: The Untold Story of American Bank, Oil Interests, the Shah’s Money, Debts, and the Astounding Connections Between Them. New York: Richardson & Snyder, 1982.

Hutchinson, Robert A. Vesco. New York and Washington, Praeger Publishers, 1974.

Index on Censorship. London: Writers & Scholars International, 1972––.

Inouye, Daniel K. and Lee K. Hamilton. Report of the Congressional Committee Investigating the Iran-Contra Affair with the Minority View. Abridged Edition, Joel Brentily and Stephen Engelber, eds. Times Books, Random House, Inc., 1988.

Inside Media. Stamford, Connecticut: Hanson Publishing Group, 1989-1997.

Inside PR: The Magazine of Integrated Marketing. New York: Editorial Media Marketing International, Inc., 1990-4.

Jacobs, Karrie and Steven Keller. Angry Graphics: Protest Posters of the Reagan/Bush Era. Salt Lake City: Peregrine Smith Books, 1992.

Jacoby, Neil H., Peter Nehemkis, and Richard Eells. Bribery and Extortion in World Business: A Study of Corporate Political Payments Abroad. Studies of the Modern Corporation, Graduate School of Business, Columbia University. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., and London: Collier-MacMillan Publisher, 1977.

James, Gerald. In the Public Interest: A Devastating Account of the Thatcher Government’s Involvement in the Covert Arms Trade–By the Man who Turned Astra Fireworks into a £100m Arms Manufacturer. London: Little, Brown and Company, 1995.

Jarry, Alfred. Ubu Roi, trans. Barbara Wright. New York: A New Directions Book, 1961.

Kahn, Douglas and Diane Neumaier, eds. Cultures in Contention. Seattle: The Real Comet Press, 1985.

Kaplan, David E., and Alec Dubro. Yakuza: The Explosive Account of Japan’s Criminal Underworld. New York: Collier Books, Macmillan Publishing Company, 1986.

Katz, Barry. Herbert Marcuse and the Art of Liberation. London: Verso Editions and NLB, 1982.

Katz, Harvey. Shadow on the Alamo: New Heroes Fight Old Corruption in Texas Politics. New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1972.

Keen, Sam. Faces of the Enemy: Reflections of the Hostile Imagination. San Francisco, Cambridge, Hagerstown, New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1986.

Kellner, Douglas. Jean Baudrillard: From Marxism to Postmodernism and Beyond, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1989.

Kennedy, Colonel William V. and Dr. David Baker, Colonel Richard S. Friedman, Lieutenant-Colonel David Miller. Intelligence Warfare: Today’s Advanced Technology Conflict. New York: Crescent Books, 1983.

Kessler, Ronald. The Richest Man in the World: The Story of Adnan Khashoggi. New York: Warner Books, Inc., 1986.

Knabb, Ken, ed. and trans. Situationist International Anthology. Berkeley, California: Bureau of Public Secrets, 1981, rpt. 1983.

Krosney, Herbert. Deadly Business: Legal Deals and Outlaw Weapons, The Arming of Iran and Iraq, 1975 to the present. New York and London: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1993.

Kwitny, Jonathan. Endless Enemies: The Making of an Unfriendly World. New York: Penguin Books, 1986.

Kwitny, Jonathan. The Crimes of Patriots: A True Tale of Dope, Dirty Money, and the CIA. New York and London, W.W. Norton & Company, 1987.

Kwitny, Jonathan. The Mullendare Murder Case. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1974.

Kwitny, Jonathan. Vicious Circles: The Mafia in the Marketplace. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1979.

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Lawther, William. Arms and the Man: Dr. Gerald Bull, Iraq, and the Supergun. Novato, California: Presidio Press, 1991.

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_____. The Unbearable Price. Granita 35, Spring 1991.

Ledeen, Michael. Perilous Statecraft: An Insider’s Account of the Iran-Contra Affair. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1988.

Lee, Marin A., and Bruce Shlain. Acid Dreams: The Complete Social History of LSD: The CIA, the Sixties, and Beyond. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1985.

Leigh, David, with Richard Norton-Taylor. Betrayed: The Real Story of the Matrix Churchill Trial. London, Bloomsbury, 1993.

Leigh, David. The Wilson Plot. How the Spycatchers and their American Allies Tried to Overthrow the British Government. New York: Pantheon Books, 1988.

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Lies of Our Times. New York: Sheridan Square Press, 1990-1994.

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Maas,Peter. Underboss: Sammy the Bull Gravano’s Story of Life in the Mafia. New York: Harperpaperbacks, a division of HarperCollins Publishers, 1997.

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McCarthy Cormac. Blood Meridian or the Evening Redness in the West. New York: Vintage Books, a division of Random House, Inc., 1992.

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Moldea, Dan E. Dark Victory: Ronald Reagan, MCA, and the Mob. New York: Penguin Books, 1987.

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