Electrogravity is an expression used by the American physicist Thomas Townsend Brown (1905-1985) for a high voltage system that can create movement through an electric field, without reaction – also called X-force or the Biefeld-Brown effect. Paul Alfred Biefeld (-c.1940) was Brown’s mentor. Their work on this force started in 1923. Such a force would explain, among other things, how UFO vessels could accelerate freely to high velocity, and how interstellar travel could be possible. In 1926 Biefeld and Brown presented a sketch of a space-mobile working on this principle. The effect of this technique can also be described as antigravity.”

Flying device using the Biefeld-Brown effect.
Flying device using the Biefeld-Brown effect

by Thomas Townsend Brown  /  August 1929
Published in Science and Invention, August 1929, and Psychic Observer, Vol. XXXVII, No.1

“There is a decided tendency in the physical sciences to unify the great basic laws and to relate, by a single structure or mechanism, such individual phenomena as gravitation, electrodynamics and even matter itself. It is found that matter and electricity are very closely related in structure. In the final analysis matter loses its traditional individuality and becomes merely an “electrical condition.” In fact, it might be said that the concrete body of the universe is nothing more than an assemblage of energy which, in itself, is quite intangible. Of course, it is self-evident that matter is connected with gravitation and it follows logically that electricity is likewise connected. These relations exist in the realm of pure energy and consequently are very basic in nature. In all reality they constitute the true backbone of the universe. It is needless to say that the relations are not simple, and full understanding of their concepts is complicated by the outstanding lack of information and research on the real nature of gravitation. The theory of relativity introduced a new and revolutionary light to the subject by injecting a new conception of space and time.

Gravitation thus becomes the natural outcome of so-called “distorted space.” It loses its Newtonian interpretation as a tangible mechanical force and gains the rank of an “apparent” force, due merely to the condition of space itself. Fields in space are produced by the presence of material bodies or electric charges. They are gravitational fields or electric fields according to their causes. Apparently they have no connection one with the other. This fact is substantiated by observations to the effect that electric fields can be shielded and annulled while gravitational fields are nearly perfectly penetrating. This dissimilarity has been the chief hardship to those who would compose a Theory of Combination.

It required Dr. Einstein’s own close study for a period of several years to achieve the results others have sought in vain and to announce with certainty the unitary field laws. Einstein’s field theory is purely mathematical. It is not based on the results of any laboratory test and does not, so far as known, predict any method by which an actual demonstration or proof may be made. The new theory accomplishes its purpose by “rounding out” the accepted Principles of Relativity so as to embrace electrical phenomena. The Theory of Relativity thus supplemented represents the last word in mathematical physics. It is most certainly a theoretical structure of overpowering magnitude and importance. The thought involved is so far reaching that it may be many years before the work is fully appreciated and understood.

Early Investigations:
The writer and his colleagues anticipated the present situation even as early as 1923, and began at that time to construct the necessary theoretical bridge between the two then separate phenomena, electricity and gravitation. The first actual demonstration of the relation was made in 1924. Observations were made of the individual and combined motions of two heavy lead balls which were suspended by wires 45 cm. apart. The balls were given opposite electrical charges and the charges were maintained. Sensitive optical methods were employed in measuring the movements, and as near as could be observed the balls appeared to behave according to the following law: “Any system of two bodies possesses a mutual and unidirectional force (typically in the line of the bodies) which is directly proportional to the product of the masses, directly proportional to the potential difference and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.”

The peculiar result is that the gravitational field of the Earth had no apparent connection with the experiment. The gravitational factors entered through the consideration of the mass of the electrified bodies. The newly discovered force was quite obviously the resultant physical effect of an electro-gravitational interaction. It represented the first actual evidence of the very basic relationship. The force was named “gravitator action” for want of a better term and the apparatus or system of masses employed was called a “gravitator.” Since the time of the first test the apparatus and the methods used have been greatly improved and simplified. Cellular “gravitators” have taken the place of the large balls of lead. Rotating frames supporting two and four gravitators have made possible acceleration measurements. Molecular gravitators made of solid blocks of massive dielectric have given still greater efficiency. Rotors and pendulums operating under oil have eliminated atmospheric considerations as to pressure, temperature and humidity.

The disturbing effects of ionization, electron emission and pure electro-statics have likewise been carefully analyzed and eliminated. Finally after many years of tedious work and with refinement of methods we succeeded in observing the gravitational variations produced by the moon and sun and much smaller variations produced by the different planets. It is a curious fact that the effects are most pronounced when the affecting body is in the alignment of the differently charged elements and least pronounced when it is at right angles. Much of the credit for this research is due to Dr. Paul Biefield, Director of Swazey Observatory. The writer is deeply indebted to him for his assistance and for his many valuable and timely suggestions.

Gravitator Action an Impulse:
Let us take, for example, the case of a gravitator totally immersed in oil but suspended so as to act as a pendulum and swing along the line of its elements. When the direct current with high voltage (75-300 kilovolts) is applied the gravitator swings up the arc until its propulsive force balances the force of the earth’s gravity resolved to that point, then it stops, but it does not remain there. The pendulum then gradually returns to the vertical or starting position even while the potential is maintained. The pendulum swings only to one side of the vertical. Less than five seconds is required for the test pendulum to reach the maximum amplitude of the swing but from thirty to eighty seconds are required for it to return to zero. The total time or duration of the impulse varies with such cosmic conditions as the relative position and distance of the moon, sun and so forth.

It is in no way affected by fluctuations in the supplied voltage and averages the same for every mass or material under test. The duration of the impulse is governed solely by the condition of the gravitational field. It is a value which is unaffected by changes in the experimental set-up, voltage applied or type of gravitator employed. Any number of different kinds of gravitators operating simultaneously on widely different voltages would reveal exactly the same impulse duration at any instant. Over an extended period of time all gravitators would show equal variations in the duration of the impulse. After the gravitator is once fully discharged, its impulse exhausted, the electrical potential must be removed for at least five minutes in order that it may recharge itself and regain its normal gravitic condition. The effect is much like that of discharging and charging a storage battery, except that electricity is handled in a reverse manner. When the duration of the impulse is great the time required for complete recharge is likewise great. The times of discharge and recharge are always proportional. Technically speaking, the exo-gravitic rate and the endo-gravitic rate are proportional to the gravitic capacity.

Summing up the observations of the electro-gravitic pendulum the following characteristics are noted:
APPLIED VOLTAGE determines only the amplitude of the swing.
APPLIED AMPERAGE is only sufficient to overcome leakage and maintain the required voltage through the losses of the dielectric. Thus the total load approximates on 37 ten-millionths of an ampere. It apparently has no other relation to the movement at least from the present state of physics.
MASS of the dielectric is a factor in determining the total energy involved in the impulse. For a given amplitude an increase in mass is productive of an increase in the energy exhibited by the system (E = mg).
DURATION OF THE IMPULSE with electrical conditions maintained is independent of all of the foregoing factors. It is governed solely by external gravitational conditions, positions of the moon, sun, etc., and represents the total energy or summation of energy values which are effective at that instant.
GRAVITATIONAL ENERGY LEVELS are observable as the pendulum returns from the maximum deflection to the zero point or vertical position. The pendulum hesitates in its return movement on definite levels or steps. The relative position and influence of these steps vary continuously every minute of the day. One step or energy value corresponds in effect to each cosmic body that is influencing the electrified mass or gravitator.

By merely tracing a succession of values over a period of time a fairly intelligible record of the paths and the relative gravitational effects of the moon, sun, etc., may be obtained. In general then, every material body possesses inherently within its substance separate and distinct energy levels corresponding to the gravitational influences of every other body. these levels are readily revealed as the electro-gravitic impulse dies and as the total gravitic content of the body is slowly released. The gravitator, in all reality, is a very efficient electric motor. Unlike other forms of motors it does not in any way involve the principles of electromagnetism, but instead it utilizes the newer principles of electro-gravitation.

A simple gravitator has no moving parts but is apparently capable of moving itself from within itself. it is highly efficient for the reason that it uses no gears, shafts, propellers or wheels in creating its motive power. It has no internal resistance and no observable rise in temperature. Contrary to the common belief that gravitational motors must necessarily be vertical-acting the gravitator, it is found, acts equally well in every conceivable direction. While the gravitator is at present primarily a scientific instrument, perhaps even an astronomical instrument, it also is rapidly advancing to a position of commercial value. Multiimpulse gravitators weighing hundreds of tons may propel the ocean liners of the future. Smaller and more concentrated units may propel automobiles and even airplanes. Perhaps even the fantastic “space cars” and the promised visit to Mars may be the final outcome.”


“The first empirical experiments by Townsend Brown had the characteristic simplicity and concerned the behavior of a condenser when charged with electricity. The startling revelation was that, if placed in free suspension with the poles horizontal, the condenser, when charged, exhibited a forward thrust toward the positive pole! A reversal of polarity caused a reversal of the direction of thrust.”

The Wizard of Electro-gravity
by William L. Moore / May 1978

“The most illuminating insight into how UFO’s are powered can be found in the life and work of an obscure but brilliant American scientist and inventor, Thomas Townsend Brown. Born into a prominent Zanesville, Ohio family in 1905, Brown displayed early in life an interest in space travel – a subject consider4ed sheer fantasy in the days when there were still those who looked askance at the Wright Brothers’ flying machines. Nonetheless, young Brown was not so easily dissuaded, and enjoyed dabbling with what then regarded as “modern” electronics. It was his youthful toying with the then infant ideas of radio and electromagnetism that provided a background which was to be invaluable to him in later years; and it was during the course of this experimenting that Brown somehow acquired a Coolidge X-ray tube – an item that was to lead him to make a startling discovery. X-rays, (or Roentgen Rays) were indeed mysterious forces in those days (in fact, American physical chemist William D. Coolidge had only just invented the “Coolidge tube” itself in 1913), and even legitimate science was only beginning to learn anything about them. Brown wasn’t interested in the X-rays, per se, however. Somewhere in his head rested the idea that maybe a key to space flight might be found here; and toward that end, he set up an experiment to determine whether there might be a useful force of some sort exerted by the X-rays emanating from his Coolidge tube.

Trying something that no other scientist of his day had thought of, Brown mounted his tube in extremely delicate balance and began “testing” for results. To his disappointment, he was unable to detect any measurable force exerted by the rays regardless of which way he turned his apparatus; but to his amazement, he did note a very strange quality of the Coolidge tube itself. Every time it was turned on, the tube seemed to exhibit a motion of its own – a “thrust” of some sort, as if the apparatus was trying to move! Investigating further, Brown had to spend considerable time and effort before the truth finally dawned. The X-rays had nothing whatsoever to do with this new-found phenomenon – it was the high voltage used to produce the rays which was behind it! Brown now began a series of experiments designed to determine the nature of the “force” he had discovered, and after much effort finally succeeded in developing a device which he optimistically called a “Gravitor.” His invention looked like nothing more than a Bakelite case some twelve inches long and four inches square, but when placed on a scale and connected to a one hundred kilovolt power source, the apparatus proceeded to gain or lose about one percent of its weight (depending on polarity). Brown was sure he had discovered a new electrical principle, but he remained unsure of just what to do with it. And in spite of the fact that there were a few newspaper accounts of his work, no scientist of any stature expressed an interest in his discovery – a not entirely surprising reaction when one considers that Brown was only then about to graduate from high school!

Readily recognizing his youth as a handicap, Brown elected to “proceed with caution,” and in 1922 he entered the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) at Pasadena, CA. as a “promising young freshman,” and spent his first year courting the favor of his professors – among them the late physicist and Nobel laureate, Dr. Robert A. Millikan. His success in being able to convince his instructors of his excellence as a lab man was offset by his complete inability to gain even the slightest measure of recognition for his ideas about electro-gravity. His teachers, steeped to the last in the rigors of 19th century scientific discipline, steadfastly refused to admit that such a thing could exist, and hence, “weren’t interested.” Undaunted, Brown transferred nearer to home to Kenyon College (Gambier, Ohio) in 1923, remaining there only a year and then transferring to Denison University at Granville, Ohio, where he studied as an electronics resident in the Department of Physics under Dr. Paul Alfred Biefeld, professor of physics and astronomy and former classmate, in Switzerland, of Dr. Albert Einstein.Unlike Dr. Millikan at Caltech, Biefeld proved to be interested in Brown’s discovery, and together the two of them, professor and student, experimenting with charged electrical capacitors, developed a principle of physics which came to be tentatively known as the “Biefeld-Brown Effect.” Basically, the “effect” concerned the observed tendency of a highly charged electrical condenser to exhibit motion toward its positive pole – the same motion observed earlier by Brown with his Coolidge tube.

Following the completion of his formal education, Townsend Brown joined the staff of the Swazey Observatory in Ohio, where he remained some four years and during which time he married. Opportunity came searching in 1930, and Brown left the staff of Swazey to sign on with the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C., as a specialist in radiation, field physics and spectroscopy. It was during this phase of his life that he participated in the Navy Department’s International Gravity Expedition to the West Indies in 1932, and as a physicist in the Johnson-Smithsonian Deep Sea Expedition of 1933. Later that same year, the Depression took its toll and budget cutbacks forced him to leave the Naval Research Lab in search of “greener pastures.” Undaunted, he joined the U.S. Naval Reserve, and, finding scientific jobs scarce, landed a position first as a soil engineer for the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and later as an administrator for the Civilian Conservation Corps in Ohio.

Daytime jobs during the thirties, however, did not prevent Brown from continuing his studies of physics in general and the Biefeld-Brown effect in particular during available evening and weekend hours; and with the passage of time, the original “Gravitator” design saw numerous improvements. In 1939, Brown, now a lieutenant in the naval reserve went to Maryland as a material engineer for the Glenn L. Martin Company of Baltimore (later Martin Aerospace), but was there only a matter of months when he was called upon by the Navy to become officer in charge of magnetic and acoustic minesweeping research and development under the Bureau of Ships. He served faithfully, pressing over the expenditure of nearly $50 million for research (there were some fifteen Ph.D.’s responsible to Brown at one point), and even consulting with Einstein himself on occasion (the common bond, remember, was Dr. Biefeld), until after Pearl Harbor when he was transferred, with the rank of lieutenant commander, to Norfolk to continue his research while heading up the Navy’s Atlantic Fleet Radar School there.The early years of the war saw Lieutenant Commander Brown deeply involved as a physicist with projects conducted under the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC), and later under its successor, the Office of Scientific Research headed by Dr. Vannevar Bush.

Among other things, Brown performed some very valuable high-vacuum work as well as experiments centered on perfecting methods of ship degaussing. However, the combined effects of his having worked “too long and too hard,” and of his personal disappointment in the failure of his projects to gain proper recognition resulted in a nervous collapse in December of 1943. Retirement from the service quickly followed and Brown was sent home to rest. Six months later, the spring of 1944 found him working as a radar consultant for the advanced design section of Lockheed-Vega Aircraft Corporation in California. Colleagues referred to him as a “quiet, modest, retiring man…a brilliant solver of engineering problems” and “exactly the sort (of man) one expects to find in important research installations.” More importantly, he was still working on his Gravitator, although, interestingly, Brown would not speak in terms of gravity when describing it – preferring rather to use the more scientific but decidedly less sensational term “stress in dielectrics.”

Things began to look up just a bit in the post-war years. After leaving Lockheed, Brown went to Hawaii to take up private residence and to continue his research. It was during this time, partly through the efforts of an old friend (A. L. Kitselman) who was then teaching calculus at Pearl Harbor, that Brown’s Gravitor device, somewhat improved over earlier editions, came to the interest of none other than Admiral Arthur W. Radford, Commander in Chief of the U.S. Pacific Fleet (later to become Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff under President Eisenhower, 1953-57). As a result of Admiral Radford’s interest, Brown was temporarily accorded consultant status to the Pearl harbor Navy Yard, but in spite of the fact that the former lieutenant commander was well treated by his navy friends, it appears from the evidence that they considered his invention as rather more of an interesting curiosity rather than any sort of key to space travel.

Perhaps, to engage in a bit of speculation, had Brown been more of a salesman than a scientist, things might have been different. In the meantime, the appearance of UFO’s on the American scene at the turn of the decade had succeeded in capturing Brown’s personal interest. Eagerly following the controversy as it raged among the military and scientific community in the late forties and early fifties, Brown postulated that perhaps with the proper worldwide scientific appraoch, the question of how UFO’s are powered might be solved. In those days, his belief in the abilities of modern science was such that he even dared to speculate on the posibility of a quick solution, given the proper resources and manpower, and, of course, he remained constantly aware of the possibility that he had, through his own efforts at research into electrogravity, hit upon one of the keys to the mystery. Moving to Cleveland in 1952, Brown conceived of a project he called “Winterhaven.” An idea which he hoped with proper refinements could be offered for sale to the military establishment. Through patient research, he succeeded in improving the lift force of his Gravitator apparatus until it was such that it could lift significantly in excess of one hundred per-cent of its own weight – a success that should have raised the eyebrows of any respectable scientist or pentagon official – but apparently didn’t, even though the apparatus involved was quite sophisticated and, as we shall see, the demonstrations most impressive.

According to modern science, everything in the known universe owes its existence to three basic energies or forces: electromagnetism, nuclear forces and gravity. Whether these three are separate forces, or whether they are manifestations of some more basic unifying force is still a matter of conjecture. Indeed, Albert Einstein’s life work was largely devoted to trying to perfect a theory of Unified Field, and in the process of trying to derive the field equations involved, came to speculate that what we call “matter” is, in reality, only a local phenomenon exhibited by areas of extreme field-energy concentration. Even establishment science does not question the patently obvious relationship between electricity and magnetism, but the relationship of these two fields to the “gravity field” constitutes an area physics, which, more than twenty years after Einstein’s death, is still largely incomprehensible to modern science. In general, most of orthodox science in the seventies does tend to recognize a loose linking or “coupling” effect of some sort between electrical and gravitational forces, but precious few scientists have seen fit to speculate that this coupling effect might be at all applicable. At least, such is the case officially, although there exists sufficient reason to suspect that there may have been significant advancements in this area which are still well hidden under that proverbial “brass lid” emblazoned with the phrase “Top Secret.”In any event, Townsend Brown’s departure from orthodoxy rests on the above point. Brown firmly believes there is a linking force between gravity and electricity. Whether there may be a further connection between magnetism and gravity, and hence a “unifying” field relationship between all three is yet another question. But to get back to basics; Townsend Brown believes – and his experiments seem to bear him out – that the Biefeld-Brown Effect manifests a proven link between electricity and gravity.

A “dielectric” is defined as a material which has the unique ability of absorbing electrical energy or “charge” without ordinarily passing this energy on to neighboring materials. Some dielectrics are able to absorb enormous quantities of electrical energy (also referred to as “elastic stress”) without discharging, providing that the energy is fed into the dielectric slowly and at low potential. Still others can be charged at extremely high potential at a rate equal to several thousand times each second. Townsend Brown concerned himself principally with this latter type. Using just such a dielectric, Brown constructed disc (or saucer) shaped condensers, and, by applying various amounts of high voltage direct current, witnessed the Biefeld-Brown effect in action. With the proper construction and electrical potential (in the kilovolt range) the disc-shaped “airfoils” were made to fly under their own power, emitting a slight hum and a bluish electrical glow as they did so. More scientifically, perhaps, this process of “flight” might best be described as “motion under the influence of interaction between electrical and gravitational fields in the direction of the positive electrode.”In 1953, Brown succeeded in demonstrating, in his laboratories, the flight of disc-shaped air foils two feet in diameter around a circular course twenty feet in diameter. The process involved tethering these saucer-shaped craft to a central pole by means of a wire through which the necessary D.C. electrical potential was supplied at a rate of fifty thousand volts with a continuous input of fifty watts. The tests produced an observable top speed of an amazing seventeen feet per-second (11.5 miles per hour).

Working with almost superhuman determination and at great cost to his personal finances, Brown soon succeeded in surpassing even this accomplishment. At his next display, he exhibited a set of disks three feet across flying a fifty foot diameter course with results so spectacular that they were immediately classified. Even so, most scientists who witnessed the demonstrations remained skeptical and generally attributed Brown’s motive force to what they called an “electrical wind,” in spite of the fact that a veritable “electrical hurricane” would have to be involved to produce the lift-potential observed. Pitiful few gave any credence whatsoever to the idea that the Biefeld-Brown Effect might represent anything new in the world of physics. Government funds were sought to enable the work to continue, but in 1955, seeing that the money was not forthcoming, a disgruntled Brown went to Europe in hopes that perhaps he might be able to generate a little more enthusiasm on the continent.Demonstrations were given first in England, but it was on the mainland under the auspices of a French corporation, La Socie’te’ National de Construction Aeronautique Sud Ouest (SNCASO), that things really began to look promising. During a set of tests performed confidentially within the company’s research laboratory, Brown succeeded in flying some of his discs in a high vacuum with amazing results, thereby proving that, in fact, his discs flew more efficiently without air. Also proven during this series of experiments was that the speed and efficiency of the the “craft” could be increased by providing greater voltage to the dielectric plates. Contemporary accounts easily visualized speeds of several hundred miles-per-hour using voltages in the range of one to two hundred thousand electron volts, and at least one writer spoke of of a “flame jet generator” then in the planning stage, which supposedly would be able to provide power potential up to 15 million volts!

In fact, plans had been laid for the immediate construction of a large vacuum chamber and a one-half million volt power supply when disaster struck the project in the form of a corporate merger. SNCASO had agreed to combine with a larger company to form what was termed a “Super Douglass of France”: Sud Est. The president of the emerging company proceeded to demonstrate an appalling lack of interest in “these far-out propulsion research efforts” and favored instead an increased interest in “air frame manufacture.” All facilities designated and created by the former president to carry on the work on electro-gravity were summarily cancelled and a thoroughly disappointed Brown was forced to return home to the U.S. in 1956. The summer of that year found him living in the Washington, D.C. area still interested in UFO research and hoping fervently that if scientific evidence could be uncovered suggesting their possible method of propulsion, his own work would be greatly enhanced – an idea which leads us down yet another avenue of Townsend Brown’s life.

The key to this phase was a then 67-year-old widow named Mrs. Walton C. John – better known as “Clara” to her friends. Clara John was the occasional publisher of a mimeographed tract known as The Little Listening Post which dealt with a variety of of novel and esoteric items, not the least of which was the UFO. In the course of her excursions into the netherworld of the bizarre and the novel, she had come into contact with Townsend brown and by 1955 had managed to maintain an intermittent correspondence with him for several years.Clara John, however, was far too active a personality to satisfy her interests through mere correspondence. In the spring of 1956, Mrs. John had enthusiastically organized a small circle of friends and acquaintances, all of whom shared a common interest in the UFO, into what came to be called “The Flying Saucer Discussion Group” – an informal collection of the curious and interested which met on a more-or-less monthly basis at the Y.W.C.A. and invited well known figures in the UFO field to speak. Barely a month later, what was to become the largest, and for a time the most influential, of the UFO organizations was created: “the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena,” more commonly referred to as NICAP. On Aug. 29, 1956, a mere two weeks after final endorsement by the Flying Saucer Discussion Group. Townsend Brown filed documents of incorporation for the new organization in the District of Columbia, listing among the Board of Governors two physicists, two ministers, two businessmen, a former rear admiral and a retired army brigadier general. Clara John voiced the hopes of all concerned by stating her expectations that the “floodgates of confusion” in the UFO field had “at last found a safe and orderly outlet.”Through September and October, Brown, in his capacity as director began to set up shop. The new committee, he felt, should be organized along proven corporate lines so as to insure maximum efficiency in all phases of the operation. Accordingly, an acting treasurer was appointed, office space was acquired, and the services of a secretary obtained. At last, with the final approval on Oct. 24, 1956 of NICAP’s corporate charter, Brown’s dream became reality. It was, for Brown, to be short lived.

The showdown came at a climatic meeting of the membership in January, 1957, at which Brown was accused of following an irresponsible fiscal policy and leading the group on too radical a course. During the shouting match that followed, Brown’s anti-gravity theories were repeatedly referred to amidst allegations that Brown’s sole purpose was to further his own research. Faced with bankruptcy or reorganization, the Board of Governors forced Brown’s resignation the next day and appointed former Marine Major Donald E. Keyhoe, noted UFO author and investigator, as the new director with virtually unlimited powers.The loss of the helm following the January confrontation was, at the very least, a severe blow to Brown’s hopes for Winterhaven – but the work went on. Within a year, he was busily engaged as chief research and development consultant for the Whitehall Rand Project, a new anti-gravity venture being conducted under the personal auspices of Agnew Bahnson, president of the Bahnson Company of Winston-Salem, North Carolina.

In 1958, believing he had finally generated enough momentum to “go it alone,” Townsend Brown organized his own corporation under the name of Rand International Limited, and set himself up as president. Although numerous patents were applied for and granted both in the U.S. and abroad, and in spite of many patiently given demonstrations to interested governmental and corporate groups, success again eluded him. In the early sixties, Brown did a brief stint as physicist for Electrokinetics Inc., of Bala Cynwyd, PA. and upon terminating his employment there, went into semi-retirement. Since then, he has lived on in California, quietly pursuing his research in hopes that perhaps someday, with a little luck, the world will notice. His most recent involvement is with a project housed largely at Stanford Research Institute with additional assistance being provided by the University of California and the Ames Research Center of NASA. The object of the research, details of which are still largely under wraps, is to try to determine what connection there is, if any, between the earth’s gravitational field and rock electricity (petroelectricity).

Which, of course, leads us to the prime question of this article: Why indeed has Townsend Brown’s impressive life’s work gone so seemingly unoticed for the past three decades? Even today, Brown is still of the opinion that further research into the Biefeld-Brown Effect could lead to a sensational breakthrough in space propulsion methods, not to mention the more domestic variety – if appropriate funding could be made available. Granted, research is expensive, but – is money the real reason for the apparent lack of interest? Perhaps. Or maybe, as Brown himself suggests, the human race is not yet ready to accept a scientific breakthrough that could place man within reach of the stars.”

fig.27“From figs.27(i) and (ii) can be seen the diagrammatic form of a rig made by Thomas Townsend Brown which, according to film footage taken at the time (presumably in the late 50’s) by his colleagues, hovered in the air about six feet off the ground when connected up to a high voltage source. There are precious few actual written descriptions of how it worked but it obviously follows on from two of his electrokinetic patents (US 2,949,550 Aug 16 1960, and 3,187,206 June 1 1965), but with some useful modifications. As will be seen below he was on the right track to developing America’s first electrokinetic UFO.

In the pursuit of extra ‘anti-gravity’ power Brown charged up a large sphere by streaming electrons off of a focus-rod electrode attached to a positively charged arcuate, or conical, electrode. To this large sphere he attached a rod, and at the end of the rod was connected a much smaller sphere. He realised that a much smaller sphere attached to the furthest end of the rod would be charged to the same voltage-pressure as the large sphere, but because in the laws of electrostatics of charge density being inversely proportional to radius of curvature the small sphere would attain a greatly increased density of electric charge (compared to a simple rod electrode on its own for instance). With this electronic configuration he greatly enhanced his electrokinetic, or electrogravitic, or as he later called it hydrostatic propulsion, and proved very effectively that he was able to make a metallic object defy the force of gravity.

TT Brown’s reasoning behind his method of electrokinetic levitation is to be found in his US patent 3,187,206 where he says, “A force is produced in the direction of one electrode provided that electrode is of such configuration to cause the lines-of-force to converge steeply upon the other electrode. The force, therefore, is in a direction from the region of high flux density toward the region of low flux density, generally in the direction through the axis of the electrodes.” And, “Broadly, the invention relates to shaping an electrical field to produce a force upon the device that shapes the field. The electrical field is shaped by the use of an electrode of special configuration whereby the electric lines-of-force are made to converge at a distance from the electrode.” (see Ion Kinetics page). A more detailed description of the electrophoretic and electrohydrodynamic forces involved can be found in TT Brown’s series of Electrohydrodynamic documents (see Hydrostatics (EHD) page) (and see note 17).

At a Distance From The Electrode
Essentially, Brown observed that the thrust came not from the inter-action of opposite charges of high voltage between two shaped electrodes, but that it came from the high voltage charging of the ambient mediums surrounding the electrodes, and that if the negatively charged ambient medium was positioned some way away from the positive ambient medium (ie the air) then the negative part, with its electrode, would tend to be moved toward the positively charged ambient – by electrokinetic attraction (figs.28see figs 28 (i), (ii), and (iii)). The continuation of this modus operandi would be that for a craft to effectively use electrokinetic thrust it would need to strip electrons away from the largest area possible surrounding its positive electrode, and propel those electrons as fast as possible, as far away as possible (or even more precisely, as far as possible in a direction directly opposite to that required, in as confined a channel as possible, and at a velocity directly proportional to the speed and acceleration so required). Brown at one stage, using empirical data, calculated a potential difference between two such ambient fields to be as high as 15 million volts – from a small prototype ‘disc’ model with a power source of just 50 kV (see Philadelphia Experiment).


Lazar Beams
Bob Lazar, of the now degraded Area-51, observed NINE different types of ufo craft (see note 18) while he was there. He has already given an explanation of how the craft he worked on, the ‘sports model’ as he chose to call it, utilized various exotic energies. Particularly interesting in his account was that when he went inside it there was a very obvious lack of sharp edges, “It was beyond being rounded, it was like it was almost melted.” And… “It looked like it’s made of wax and heated for a time and then cooled off. Everything has a soft, round edge to it; there’s no abrupt changes in anything. It looked like everything was cast out of one piece.” (see note 19). At the end of one of his working days at S-4 he was treated to a special viewing of one of the sports model crafts. He was very wisely told to sit down at a safe distance from the 40-foot ufo to observe it’s behaviour. “The disc sat out there for a period of time,” he explained, ” then the bottom of it glowed blue and it began to hiss, like high voltage does on a round sphere. It’s my impression that the reason they’re round and have no sharp edges is to contain the voltage… It lifted off the ground, quietly, except for that little hiss in the background, and that stopped as soon as it reached about twenty or thirty feet. It shifted over to the left, shifted over to the right, and set back down. I mean, it doesn’t sound like much, but it was incredibly impressive, just mind-boggling. It was just magic.” (see note 20).

Although I’m tentatively convinced the sport model works by propagating an electromagnetic ‘gravity wave’ as Lazar has alluded to in his video I more favourably believe you could use some of its fundamental characteristics to build a craft that uses ‘less exotic’ propulsion methods.  For it seems to me that you could quite easily apply the TT Brown effect of hydrostatics to Lazar’s ufo.   For instance, inside what Lazar calls the gravity amplifier heads (see Lazar Gravity) on the upper deck would be charged-particle generators (of electrons). These particles would be pumped through a focus ring stack (what Lazar calls gravity wave guides) on the lower deck, which would be made up of alternately polarized electromagnetic rings. The purpose of each of these rings would be to focus the stream of electrons into a very tightly packed beam. This technological field might be likened to that of electron guns or travelling-wave-tubes where hollow hemispherical flux sources (HHFS), or “magic igloos” are used to create a reversing magnetic field configuration (see note 21), so as to ensure that the charged particles (ie the electrons) form into a tight beam without them repulsing out of the beam. Once the separate beams are ejected from the focus ring stacks the beams are focused together at a point some distance away from the craft, and in the same principle as the TT Brown craft the ambient medium surrounding the beams’ focal point will be charged to a negative polarity. All that is then required to provide movement is to charge up the air surrounding the top of the craft with positive charge, to summon up the electrokinetic reaction.

In fact Bob Lazar does allude to this in a roundabout sort of way (see note 22), in that from the central reactor small amounts of antimatter are radiated up in a special wave through a waveguide so that the anti-electrons (positively charged electrons or positrons) in that wave burst out of the top of the tube and collide with an electrically charged ‘cloud’ of particles. And as in Dirac’s theory of the electron; when an electron encounters its opposite charged particle, the positron, they annihilate eachother – but, because energy cannot be destroyed or created the result is a transformation into an electromagnetic wave…(And that, if there is a powerful enough electromagnetic field, two opposite charges of electricity will be created from it). Presumably, there is also the possibility of a positron-avalanche where, if in the realms of anti-matter there will be the opposite equivalent of the electron-avalanche chain-reaction, which for electrokinetic reactions would be such a useful way of ‘seeding’ the ambient with electric charge with minimal energy expenditure.(see Electron Cascade Effect).

New Spheres of Knowledge
The principle of ‘seeding the air’ electrically can also be used in two ways, as we have already seen the ambient below the craft can be seeded negatively and the craft (charged positively) will be forced to move away from it; but the air above the craft can be seeded positively resulting in a reaction the other way round – the craft (charged negative) will be drawn toward it. The use of the latter principle explains the propulsion system of one of the most un-ufo types of ufo flying through our earth’s airspace most recently, the orb-sphere which, on the outside is just a round craft about 15 feet in diameter and made out of a silvery-chrome metal with no apparent markings or methods of propulsion – for it looks completely smooth-surfaced and perfectly spherical (fig.29asee fig.29a). From the few available illustrations of one landed (see note 23), can be seen that nothing at the bottom or at the mid-to-lower circumferences provides a clue as to the thrust it uses. Only at the top are there seven or eight vent-holes. These vent-holes are further described as emitting concentrated streams of light-energy which graduate from faint to thick, light to dark-coloured, and if the illustration is anything to go by the main beams of energy look as if they are each surrounded by a narrow ‘tube’ of what seems to be a confining energy, sort of like a collimator tube that magnetically (or electrically) constricts (coaxially) the main electrical particle flow.

So here we have the provision to project into the air above the craft some sort of energy, and by the look of how all the vent-holes are angled slightly outward it would appear that their individual emission-beams are directed in a divergent fashion so as to especially effect as large a volume of ambient as possible (but not so divergent as to weaken the effect by not forming a coalescence at some finite distance above the craft… Having said all that, and having looked at recent developments to do with ionizing atmospheric air, the above apparency may not necessarily be its rule of work. It may just be that these emission-beams are directional and that to converge the beams would give more lift while to diverge them would give less lift – after all, what goes up has to be allowed to also come down…). The ambient being controlled in this case would be charged positive while the actual spherical structure of the craft would act as an accumulator of negative charge (see note 24), and so the resulting electrokinetic effect would be just the same in principle as a conventional TT Brown type ufo. Direction of movement is a simple matter of controlling the ionizing power in each of the beams (and directing them) as a composite whole. This technology of course flies in the face of Science, that is a tad too preoccupied with Newton’s Third Law rocket propulsion (dated 1666 AD) which always asks – how much mass is being propelled – to create a propulsion reactive force so as to get a displacement force…But this present time technology is so much more enterprising and challenging.

Bob Lazar theorized that the ufo craft he worked on projected ‘a disturbance’ into the air ahead of it, in a fashion quite the opposite of how an internal-combustion aircraft works (see note 25). A strikingly similar procedure of pushing an electric field forward, into the direction of travel, is seen in the video-films taken of ufo’s flying over Mexico City in the early 1990’s. The British media showed a slowed-down section of this footage which clearly shows a ‘hyper-jump’ action being performed by a ufo, where a long ‘tube’ masses in the atmosphere a long way ahead of the craft, and after the craft hyper-jumps to it it sends forward another such ‘tube’ for it to jump to that, and so on until it crosses the whole sky in a matter of seconds..!   Seeding the air, thats the way to travel.

Lazar Phaser
To reiterate then the most important working principle of the electrokinetic UFO is to get the negative ambient field as far away and as quickly away as possible from the craft (or to push the positive ambient as far away as possible) – or both. The reason why Lazar’s aerodyne could have particle beam generators would be to ionize a small localised area of air (or space) at a predetermined distance ahead of it so as to produce an electric tension in the surrounding air at that distant point. For as Tesla once proved (see note 26) if a series of beams could be made to concentrate on a localised area of the atmosphere and set up an oscillating resonance in that area to a certain frequency (say to around 2 to 4 GHz where atmospheric air readily ionizes) then an electrification of that ambient would result, and depending on how much electric tension is developed there it would react upon the craft as a variable thrust force. Indeed there is ample data to suggest that some UFO propulsion systems operate in the SHF (3-30 GHz) frequency range. In France physicists have found that the sonic shock wave ahead of mach 1+ aircraft can be nullified by the use of microwave ionization. In the United States a report from the USAF indicating that UFOs use a dual 3 GHz frequency electromagnetic power wave (see note 27) as part of their propulsion system has led researchers to an intriguing and new development in the understanding (and perhaps someday duplication) of UFO propulsion (see Propagated High Frequency Wave Propulsion).

Electromotive Vortex Energies
Along similar lines to electrogravitics, or hydrostatics, (but a little earlier than TT Brown) were the concerted efforts of Viktor Schauberger and German engineers, in the 1940’s, when Europe was at war. Since the early 30’s Schauberger had been designing various machines that utilized vortex energy and had discovered through vortical hydrodynamics a way to achieve negative-friction in fluid flows, and high-power generation from spirally-rotated fluids. In the late 30’s his ingenuity was directed to free energy and levitational flight. By 1945 he had built a series of small (20 cm to 70 cm) prototypes, and had even formulated the mathematics to explain and quantify his results, with which formulas researchers have calculated that the thrust from one of his 20 cm prototypes could lift 228 tonnes (see note 30). In 1945 after yet more development a larger (50 metre) ‘flying disc’ rose to 15,000 metres in three minutes and flew at 2,200 kph. The reason why mention is made of Schauberger’s aero-craft here is because contemporary reports state that when Schauberger’s discs rose upward, they trailed a blue-green and then a silver-coloured glow around them (see note 31), and there is the account that on one occasion when powered up by mistake one of his 2.4 metre discs shot INSTANTLY into the air, even though it was bolted to a workshop bench with six bolts, and crashed into the hangar roof (see note 32)… THAT is a huge amount of thrust – and from the evidence of these and further such reports I believe that collectively these observations portray the effects of electrical polarization of the surrounding air – and that the thrust came from both air-dynamics AND electrokinetic levitation.

And although it was my opinion that through the disc’s inner vortical forces air was sucked into a central low pressure duct, into a vortical flow, and after the processes of implosion, atomic densation, and repulsion the expulsed air would be polarized electrically opposite from that of the bulk of their metallic discs, I rather favour now the idea that the Schauberger-type discs brought about a massive change in the air’s density above the discs. Accordingly it is mechanically relatively simple to create a low-density zone above the craft by the Implosion technology Schauberger discovered and for the flying disc to be dragged upwards by a density differential created above and below the craft.

fig.30fig.32The ultimate TT Brown ufo structure is to be found in the ‘wide-brimmed-hat’ type, the essence of which is depicted in the Piatan craft seen by one Helio Augiar back in 1959 at Salvador in Brazil (see figs.30 and 31). This design (see note 34), had he incorporated it’s essential ingredient, would have been the culmination of all of Brown’s work – the electrokinetic ufo (see fig.32).

fig.31Thus, the Piatan ufo is essentially a simple device to generate a cyclonic air flow which polarizes the air and very efficiently thrusts the negative charge to a distant location below the craft, by its vortical spine, while retaining and transferring the positive charge on to the upper side of its metallic structure (and of course to the air-ambient surrounding it).”



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