NEGATIVELY CHARGED EXHAUST

“These three Journals were copied by a friend of Townsend Brown’s, without his authorization. Subsequently, those copies were copied, sold, and/or passed among interested parties over the years. The questionable origin of the unauthorized copies of Journals 1, 2, and 4 is a slight on Brown’s trust that he placed in his friend, and the financial gain by those whose intentions have been less than honorable an injustice to the Townsend Brown family.”

POSITIVELY CHARGED LEADING EDGE
http://dictionary.sensagent.com/Electrogravitics/
http://www.thomastownsendbrown.com/journals/index.htm
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S1063785015010137
https://www.researchgate.net/Studying_artificial_charged_aerosol_clouds
http://www.free-energy-info.co.uk/P41.pdf
the U.S. Antigravity Squadron
by Paul A. LaViolette, Ph.D.  /  1993

Abstract
“Electrogravitic (antigravity) technology, under development in U.S. Air Force black R&D programs since late 1954, may now have been put to practical use in the B-2 Advanced Technology Bomber to provide an exotic auxiliary mode of propulsion. This inference is based on the recent disclosure that the B-2 charges both its wing leading edge and jet exhaust stream to a high voltage. Positive ions emitted from its wing leading edge would produce a positively charged parabolic ion sheath ahead of the craft, while negative ions injected into its exhaust stream would set up a trailing negative space charge with a potential difference in excess of 15 million volts.

According to electrogravitic research carried out by physicist T. Townsend Brown, such a differential space charge would set up an artificial gravity field that would induce a reactionless force on the aircraft in the direction of the positive pole. An electrogravitic drive of this sort could allow the B-2 to function with over-unity propulsion efficiency when cruising at supersonic velocities. For many years rumors circulated that the U. S. was secretly developing a highly advanced radar-evading aircraft. Rumor turned to reality in November of 1988, when the Air Force unveiled the B-2 Advanced Technology Bomber.

Although military spokesmen provided the news media with some information about the craft’s outward design and low radar and infrared profile, there was much they were silent about. However, several years later, some key secrets about the B-2 were leaked to the press. On March 9, 1992, Aviation Week and Space Technology magazine made the surprising disclosure that the B-2 electrostatically charges its exhaust stream and the leading edges of its wing-like body.(l) Those familiar with the electrogravitics research of American physicist T. Townsend Brown will quickly realize that this is tantamount to stating that the B-2 is able to function as an antigravity aircraft.

Aviation Week obtained their information about the B-2 from a small group of renegade West Coast scientists and engineers who were formerly associated with black research projects. In making these disclosures, these scientists broke a code of silence that rivals the Maria’s. They took the risk because they felt that it was important for economic reasons that efforts be made to declassify certain black technologies for commercial use. Two of these individuals said that their civil rights had been blatantly abused (in the name of security) either to keep them quiet or to prevent them from leaving the tightly controlled black R&D community. Several months after Aviation Week published the article, black world security personnel went into high gear. That sector of the black R& D community received very strong warnings and as a result, the group of scientists subsequently broke off contact with the magazine.

Clearly, the overseers of black R & D programs were substantially concerned about the information leaks that had come out in that article. To completely understand the significance of what was said about the B-2, one must first become familiar with Brown’s work. Beginning in the mid 1920’s, Townsend Brown discovered that it is possible to create an artificial gravity field by charging an electrical capacitor to a high-voltage.(2) He specially built a capacitor which utilized a heavy, high charge-accumulating (high k-factor) dielectric material between its plates and found that when charged with between 75,000 to 300,000 volts, it would move in the direction of its positive pole (Figure 2).

When oriented with its positive side up, it would proceed to lose about 1 percent of its weight. (3, 4) He attributed this motion to an electrostatically-induced gravity field acting between the capacitor’s oppositely charged plates. By 1958, he had succeeded in developing a 15 inch diameter model saucer that could lift over 110 percent of its weight!(5) Brown’s experiments had launched a new field of investigation which came to be known as electrogravitics, the technology of controlling gravity through the use of high-voltage electric charge.

As early as 1952, an Air Force major general witnessed a demonstration in which Brown flew a pair of 18-inch disc airfoils suspended from opposite ends of a rotatable arm. When electrified with 50,000 volts, they circuited at a speed of 12 miles per hour.(6) About a year later, he flew a set of 3 foot diameter saucers for some Air Force officials and representatives from a number of major aircraft companies. When energized with 150,000 volts, the discs sped around the 50-foot diameter course so fast that the subject was immediately classified. Interavia magazine later reported that the discs would attain speeds of several hundred miles per hour when charged with several hundred thousand volts.(7)

Brown’s discs were charged with a high positive voltage on a wire running along their leading edge and a high negative voltage on a wire running along their trailing edge. As the wires ionized the air around them, a dense cloud of positive ions would form ahead of the craft and corresponding cloud of negative ions would form behind the craft (Figure 3). Brown’s research indicated that, like the charged plates of his capacitors, these ion clouds induced a gravitational force directed in the minus to plus direction. As the disc moved forward in response to its self-generated gravity field, it would carry with it its positive and negative ion clouds and their associated electrogravity gradient. Consequently, the discs would ride their advancing gravity wave much like surfers ride an ocean wave. Dr. Mason Rose, one of Townsend’s colleagues, described the discs’ principle of operation as follows:(8)

“The saucers made by Brown have no propellers, no jets, no moving parts at all. They create a modification of the gravitational field around themselves, which is analogous to putting them on the incline of a hill. They act like a surfboard on a wave… The electro-gravitational saucer creates its own “hill,” which is a local distortion of the gravitational field, then it takes this “hill” with it in any chosen direction and at any rate. The occupants of one of [Brown’s] saucers would feel no stress at all, no matter how sharp the turn or how great the acceleration. This is because the ship, the occupants and the load are all responding equally to the wavelike distortion of the local gravitational field.”

Although skeptics at first thought that the discs were propelled by more mundane effects such as the pressure of negative ions striking the positive electrode, Brown later carried out vacuum chamber tests which proved that a force was present even in the absence of such ion thrust. He did not offer a theory to explain this nonconventional electrogravitic phenomenon; except to say that it was predicted neither by general relativity nor by modern theories of electromagnetism. However, recent advances in theoretical physics provide a rather straightforward explanation of the principle. According to the novel physics of subquantum kinetics, gravity potential can adopt two polarities, instead of one.(9 – 13) Not only can a gravity field exist in the form of a matter-attracting gravity potential well, as standard physics teaches, but it can also exist in the form of a matter-repelling gravity potential hill. Moreover, it predicts that these gravity polarities should be directly matched with electrical polarity: positively charged particles such as protons generating gravity wells and negatively charged particles such as electrons generating gravity hills.*

Consequently, subquantum kinetics predicts that the negative ion cloud behind Brown’s disc should form a matter-repelling gravity hill while the positive ion cloud ahead of the disc should form a matter-attracting gravity well. As increasing voltage is applied to the disc, the gravity potential hill and well become increasingly prominent and the gravity potential gradient between them increasingly steep, hi Rose’s terminology, the craft would find itself on the incline of a gravitational “hill.” Since gravity force is known to increase in accordance with the steepness of such a gravity potential slope, increased voltage would induce an increasingly strong gravity force on the disc and would act in the direction of the positive ion cloud. The disc would behave as if it were being tugged by a very strong gravitational field emanating from an invisible planet-sized mass positioned beyond its positive pole.

* Thus contrary to conventional theory, the electron produces a matter-repelling gravity field. Electrically neutral matter remains gravitationally attractive because the proton’s G-well marginally dominates the electron’s G-hill.

Early in 1952, Brown had put together a proposal, code named “Project Winterhaven,” which suggested that the military develop an antigravity combat saucer with Mach 3 capability. The 1956 intelligence study entitled Electrogravitics Systems: An Examination of Electrostatic Motion, Dynamic Counterbary and Barycentric Control, prepared by the private aviation intelligence firm Aviation Studies (International) Ltd., indicates that as early as November 1954 the Air Force had begun plans to fund research that would accomplish Project Winterhaven’s objectives.(14 – 16) The study, originally classified “confidential,” mentions the names of more than ten major aircraft companies which were actively involved in electrogravitics research in an attempt to duplicate or extend Brown’s seminal work.

Additional information is to be found in another aviation intelligence report entitled The Gravitics Situationen) Since that time much of the work in electro-antigravity has proceeded in Air Force black projects on a relatively large scale. One indication that Brown’s electrogravitics ideas were being researched by the aerospace industry surfaced in January 1968. At an aerospace sciences meeting held in New York, Northrop officials reported that they were beginning wind tunnel studies to research the aerodynamic effects of applying high-voltage charges to the leading edges of aircraft bodies.(18) They said that they expected that the resulting electrical potential would ionize air molecules upwind of the aircraft and that the resulting repulsive electrical forces would condition the air stream so as to lower drag, reduce heating and soften the supersonic boom.”

Although this sonic cushion effect is purely electrostatic, Northrop apparently got the idea for investigating this effect directly from Brown, for his electrokinetic flying disc patent explains that the positively charged, leading-edge electrode would produce just this effect. Brown states:(6) “By using such a nose form, which at present appears to be the best suited for flying speeds approaching or exceeding the speed of sound, I am able to produce an ionization of the atmosphere in the immediate region of this foremost portion of the mobile vehicle. I believe that this ionization facilitates piercing the sonic barrier and minimizes the abruptness with which the transition takes place in passing from subsonic velocities to supersonic velocities.” Also, in his 1952 paper on Brown’s saucers, Dr. Rose stated: (8) “The Townsend Brown experiments indicate that the positive field which is traveling in front of the saucer acts as a buffer wing which starts moving the air out of the way. This…field acts as an entering wedge which softens the supersonic barrier.”

* Although the author of that article speculated that Northrop might be negatively charging the aircraft’s leading edge, the sonic barrier effects can also be accomplished with a positive charge, as Brown originally suggested.

Interestingly, in 1981 the Pentagon contracted the Northrop Corporation to work on the highly classified B-2 Advanced Technology Bomber. Northrop is past experience in airframe electrostatics must have been a key factor contributing to its winning of this contract, for Aviation Week reported that the B-2 uses “electrostatic field-generating techniques” in its wing leading edges to help it minimize aerodynamic turbulence and thereby reduce its radar cross section.(l) The same article mentions that the B-2 also charges its jet engine exhaust stream, which has the effect of rapidly cooling its exhaust and thereby remarkably reducing its thermal signature. Although these disclosures were framed in the context of enhancing the B-2’s radar invisibility, in fact, they are part of the B-2’s antigravitic drive capability. With a positively charged, wing leading edge and a negatively charged, exhaust stream (Figure 4), the B-2 would function essentially as an electrogravitic aircraft. Just as in Townsend Brown’s flying discs, the positive and negative ion clouds would produce a locally altered gravity field that would cause the B-2 to feel a forward-directed gravitic force.

The design is also very similar to the saucer craft that Brown described in his electrokinetic generator patent (Figure 5).(19) The craft Brown proposed was to be powered by a flame-jet generator, a high-voltage power supply that had the advantage of being both efficient and relatively lightweight (Figure 6). His generator design utilizes a jet engine with an electrified needle mounted in the exhaust nozzle to produce negative ions in the jet’s exhaust stream. The negatively ionized exhaust is then discharged through a number of nozzles at the rear of the craft. As the minus charges leave the craft in this manner, an increasingly greater potential difference develops between the jet engine body and the negatively charged exhaust cloud behind the craft. By electrically insulating the engines and conveying their positive charges forward to a wire running along the vehicle’s leading edge, the required positively charged ion cloud is built up at the front of the vehicle. A metallic surface or wire grid positioned near the exhaust stream exit collects some of the high-voltage electrons and this recycled power is used to run the exhaust ionizers. Brown estimated that such a generator could produce potentials as high as 15 million volts across his craft.

Rumors circulating among people close to the project allege that the B-2 does utilize antigravity technology. A similar claim was publicly made in 1990 by Bob Oechsler, an ex-NASA mission specialist.(20) So, our conjecture that the B-2 incorporates an electrogravitic drive, appears to be substantially correct. If this is true, the B-2 is the first mass-produced antigravity vehicle to be displayed to the public! It is the final realization of the kind of craft that Brown had proposed in Project Winterhaven, and that the 1956 Aviation Studies report had disclosed was beginning to be developed by the military in late 1954. The secrecy that has so tightly surrounded the B-2 most likely does not as much concern its radar-evading technology, as it does its antigravity propulsion technology, although both are probably closely intertwined. The use of such nonconventional propulsion technology would explain the B-2’s high price tag, which has averaged well over a billion dollars per plane.

Although the black world scientists mentioned nothing about electrogravitics in their Aviation Week disclosure about the B-2, they did admit to the existence of very “dramatic, classified technologies,” applicable to “aircraft control and propulsion.” They were especially hesitant to discuss these projects, noting that they are “very black.” One of them commented, “Besides, it would take about 20 hours to explain the principles, and very few people would understand them anyway.” Apparently, what he meant is that this aircraft control and propulsion technology is based on physics principles that go beyond what is currently known and understood by most academic physicists. Indeed, by all normal standards, electrogravitics is a very exotic propulsion science. The B-2’s body design raises suspicions that the aircraft is indeed an electrogravitic vehicle. A primary design criterion for an electrogravitic craft is that it have a large horizontally disposed surface area so as to permit the development of a sufficiently strong antigravity lift force. As Townsend Brown’s experiments demonstrated, such an aircraft need not necessarily be disc-shaped in triangular and square-shaped forms also exhibit antigravity lift when electrified, although disc shapes give the best performance. The triangular platforms used in the B-2 and other advanced stealth aircraft may have been deemed better for reasons of their much lower radar cross section.

Interestingly, one of the central features of the B-2’s classified technology is the makeup of its hull’s outer surface. Authorities tell us that the hull is composed of a highly classified, radar-absorbing material (RAM). Ceramic dielectrics are a likely choice for the B-2 since, unlike many “lossy” dielectrics which function as radar wave absorbers, they are lossless, and hence, transparent to radar waves. More importantly, ceramic dielectrics also have the ability to store large amounts of high-voltage charge. Could the B-2’s outer RAM layer be fabricated from an advanced, high-k, high-density dielectric ceramic, a material capable of exerting an enormous electrogravitic lift force when charged? Knowing that high-voltage charge is applied to the B-2’s surface, the notion that its body surface is designed to function as a giant, high-voltage capacitor does not seem so far fetched. Given that the outer RAM skin is a key component of the B-2’s highly secret, electrogravitic propulsion system, it is not surprising that special care would be taken to keep its composition secret.

Evidence that the B-2 might indeed use a high-density ceramic RAM comes from information leaked by the above-mentioned black world scientists, who disclosed information about the development of low-radar-observability, dielectric ceramics made from powdered depleted uranium.(l) The material is said to have approximately 92% of the bulk density of uranium, which would give it a spécifie gravity of about 17.5, as opposed to about 6 for barium titanate dielectrics. Thus, this new material has about three times the density of the high-k ceramics that were being tested in the 1950’s, and hence would develop at least three times the electrogravitic pull.

The B-2’s positively charged leading edge, another key component of its propulsion technology, was also a matter of special concern to Northrop designers. According to Aviation Week, the bomber’s leading edges posed a particularly challenging production problem on the first aircraft. The leading-edge ionizer is most probably a conductive strip that runs along the B-2’s sharp prow and is electrically charged to upwards of many millions of volts. As the B-2 moves forward, its electrified leading edge deflects the approaching air stream to either side, so that a large fraction of the generated positive ions are carried away from its body surface and are prevented from immediately contacting and neutralizing the negative ions in the B-2’s exhaust stream.

As a result, the B-2 is able to build up very large space charges ahead of and behind itself, which subject it to a large gravitational potential gradient. This artificially produced gravitational gradient would steepen as the B-2 attains higher speeds and deflects its positive ions outward with increasing force. Hence the B-2’s electrogravitic drive would operate more efficiently when the craft was moving at higher speeds. Best results would be obtained when the B-2 was traveling at supersonic speeds. Positive ions from its leading edge would become entrained in the upwind, sonic shock front and flow away from the craft through that sonic boundary layer, to later converge on the negatively charged exhaust stream. Although military sources claim that the B-2 is a subsonic vehicle, in all likelihood, it is capable of supersonic flight. Probably, this capability was not disclosed in order to avoid raising curiosity about how the craft generates the required thrust.

Both in subsonic and supersonic flight, the deflected positive ions would form an ellipsoidal sheath as they circuited around the B-2 (Figure 7). The B-2’s forward, positive ion sheath would act very much like an extended positively-charged electrode surface. Thus, the electrogravitic force propelling the B-2 would arise not just from the leading-edge electrode, but also from the entire positively-charged forward ion sheath. The positive and negative ion space charge distributions would very much resemble the charge configuration that Brown employed in some of his later electrogravitic experiments. Compare Figure 7, with the arcuate electrogravitic device shown in Figure 8, which is copied from one of Brown’s patents.(21)

Brown noted that he obtained a greater electrogravitic thrust when the positive electrode was curved and made much larger than his negative electrode. (He also stated that the apparatus produced greater thrust if the dielectric constant of its intervening dielectric rod increased along its length so as to produce a nonuniform electric field relative to the positively charged canopy. This describes precisely the characteristic of the B-2’s trailing exhaust stream. At increasing distances from the craft, the negative ions progressively slow down and become more concentrated, thereby creating a nonlinear electrogravitic field along the length of the exhaust stream.) Thus, the B-2’s ion sheath is optimally configured as an electrogravitic drive. As seen in Figure 9, each of the B-2’s leading edges is segmented into eight sections separated from one another by ten-centimeter wide struts. Quite possibly, the struts electrically isolate the sections from one another so that they may be individually electrified. In this way, through proper control of the applied voltage, it would be possible to gravitically steer the craft. Brown had suggested a similar idea as a way of steering his saucer craft. The leading-edge sections positioned in front of the air scoops most likely are sparingly electrified so as to prevent positive ions from entering the engine ducts and neutralizing the negative ions being produced there. These two nonelectrified leading-edge sections would be ideal places to mount forward-looking radar antennae since the ion plasma sheath produced by the other leading-edge sections would form a barrier that would interfere with radar signal transmission. In fact, the B-2’s two Hughes Aircraft radar units are mounted precisely in these leading-edge locations: right in front of the air intakes.

The 1956 Electrogravitics Systems report suggested that there be a division of responsibility in the program to develop a Mach-3 electrogravitic aircraft, that the “condenser assembly which is the core of the main structure” be developed by an airframe manufacturer and that the flame-jet generator which provides the electrostatic energy for the craft be developed by companies specializing in jet engine technology.(22) Consistent with that suggestion, we find that Northrop, a company experienced in aircraft electrostatics, was contracted to develop the B-2’s airframe and that General Electric, a company experienced in the development of jet engines and superconducting electrical generators was contracted to develop the B-2’s engines. In fact, the report mentions GE as one of the companies involved in early electrogravitics work. Also, it is known that in 1959 Townsend Brown conducted electrogravitics vacuum chamber experiments at the GE Aerospace facilities. Authorities claim that the Stealth is powered by four General Electric F-l 18-GE-100 jet engines similar to those used in the F-16 fighter.

However, the absence of a forceful exhaust thrust from the B-2, especially at take off, leads us to suspect that the B-2 does not operate on a conventional jet-thrust principle. Rather, its engines more likely are designed to function as flame-jet high-voltage generators. The propulsive force lofting the craft then, would come not so much from the jet exhaust thrust, as it would from the electrogravitic force field electrically powered by the jet’s generators. Such flame-jet generators also would account for the presence of ions that Aviation Week says are present in the B-2’s exhaust stream. As in Brown’s saucer, the engine body would acquire a high positive charge as it exhausted negative ions. Presumably, the engine is electrically insulated from the aircraft hull and its positive charges are conducted forward to power the leading-edge ionizers. The B-2’s GE engines are reported to each be capable of putting out 19,000 pounds of thrust. Consequently, all four engines together should provide the B-2 with a total output of about 140,000 horsepower which translates into an electric power output of about 25 megawatts, assuming a 30 percent conversion efficiency.* By comparison, the November 1954 Aviation Report concluded that a 35-foot diameter electrogravitic combat disc would need to have access to about 50 megawatts of power in order to attain Mach 3 flight speeds.(22)  So, it appears that the magnitude of the B-2’s power output is in the right ballpark.

When the B-2 was unveiled in 1988, one Air Force official commented that the B-2 uses a system of baffles to mix cool intake air with its hot exhaust gases so as to cool the gases and thereby make them less visible to infrared-guided missiles. Although IR invisibility might be one side-benefit, most likely the real purpose for diluting the exhaust is to greatly increase the flow volume and hence the ability of the exhaust stream to eject negative charges from the craft. Much of the air entering the B-2’s intake scoops probably bypasses the flame-jet intake and is mixed with the jet’s hot ionized exhaust (Figure 9). Additional ions would be injected into the combined airstream by means of additional downstream electrodes. This augmented volume of ionized gases would then discharge through the two rectangular exhaust nozzles positioned near the rear of the B-2’s wing. As the exhaust streams leave the nozzles they contact the titanium coated overwing exhaust ducts, portrayed in Figure 9.

* This horsepower estimate is based upon the assumption that the jets would be able to propel the craft to a velocity of about 600 miles per hour (Mach 0.8).

These open duct sections may function as rear electrical grids that collect million volt electrons from the exhaust streams and recycle them to power the exhaust and wing air ionizers. This would be done in the same fashion as Brown had suggested in his patent (Figure 6). As the exhaust leaves the craft, it passes over trailing-edge exhaust deflectors, flaps which can be swiveled so as to direct the exhaust stream either up or down for flight control. This accomplishes more than just vectoring of the exhaust thrust; it also changes the direction of the electrogravitic force vector. When the exhaust is deflected downward, negative charges are directed below the craft. As a result, the electrogravitic force on the craft becomes vectored upward as well as forward. When the exhaust stream is deflected upward, its negative ions are directed above the craft, resulting in an electrogravitic force that is directed downward as well as forward. Thus, by controlling these flaps, the B-2 is able to control its field so as to induce either a gain or loss of altitude.

Once the B-2 was going fast enough, it would receive sufficient air flow through its scoops that it could maintain a relatively high flow rate of ionized exhaust even with its engine combustion thrust substantially reduced. Since hot exhaust is not essential to its operation, the high-voltage generator could just as well run on cool intake air with the flame jets entirely shut off. As Brown points out in his electrokinetic generator patent, “It is to be understood that any other fluid stream source might be substituted for the combustion chamber and fuel supply.”(19) In such a “coasting mode,” where jet combustion is entirely shut off, the B-2 would be able to fly for an indefinitely long period of time with essentially zero fuel consumption, powering itself primarily with energy tapped from its self-generated gravitational gradient.

For example, during coasting, the kinetic energy of the scooped air stream would arise entirely from the craft’s own forward motion, this motion, in turn, being due to the pull of the electrogravitic propulsion field. The kinetic energy of this ionized air stream is responsible for linearly accelerating negative ions down the B-2’s exhaust ducts and hence for creating the multi-megavolt potential difference relative to the positively charged engine body. The craft’s high-voltage electron collector grids (the overwing exhaust ducts) recover a portion of this power to run the craft’s ionizers. Provided that this power drain is not excessive and that the plane’s propulsive gravity field can be adequately maintained, the craft would be able to achieve a state of perpetual propulsion.

Such perpetual motion behavior is possible in devices having the capability to manipulate their own gravity field. It should be added here that when the B-2 flies at a sufficiently high velocity, such that the flow rate of its scooped air exceeds many times the exhaust flow rate from its jet turbines, the electrical power output of its mixed exhaust will be comparably larger, perhaps exceeding 100 megawatts. When the B-2 was first unveiled, critics had suggested that it could not risk flying at high altitudes because it might create vapor trails that would be visible to an enemy. Edward Aldridge Jr., the secretary of the Air Force, was asked whether that problem had been solved. He replied “Yes, but we’re not going to disclose how.” Clearly, to explain how the B-2 could travel at high altitude with its engines essentially shut off and producing no vapor trail, he would have to disclose the vehicle’s nonconventional mode of propulsion. Incidentally, in such a coasting mode, the B-2’s waste heat output also would be greatly reduced, hence lessening its chance of being detected with infrared sensors.

The B-2’s Emergency Power Units (EPUs) probably play a key role in assisting such high-altitude flight. According to Bill Scott,(23) each EPU consists of a small self-contained gas turbine powered by hydrazine, a liquid that rapidly decomposes into gases when activated by a catalyst. The expanding gases are made to drive a turbine which in turn drives an electrical generator. Public disclosures state that the purpose of the EPU is to supply electric power to the craft should the B-2’s four jet engines happen to flame out, or its four electrical generators happen to simultaneously fail. More likely, they were designed to function as auxiliary generators capable of operating at high-altitudes (or even in space) where the air would be too thin to sustain normal jet combustion. At high-altitude the decomposed hydrazine gases would take the place of scooped air as the medium for transporting ions from the craft. That is, after passing through the EPU, these gases would be electrified and expelled from the craft in the same fashion as would the jet exhaust. Townsend Brown noted that his electrogravitic propulsion system could run just as well using a compressed gas source such as carbon dioxide as the ion carrying medium as it could using the exhaust from a jet engine. Is all this just idle speculation? Or, could the B-2 really be the realization of one of mankind’s greatest dreams ~ an aircraft that has mastered the ability to control gravity.”

NOTES
1. Scott, W. B. “Black World engineers, scientists encourage using highly classified technology for civil applications.” Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 9, 1992, pp. 66-67.
2. Brown, T. T. “How I control gravity.” Science and Invention Magazine, August 1929. Reprinted in Psychic Observer 37(1) pp. 14-18.
3. Burridge, G. “Another step toward anti-gravity.” The American Mercury 86(6)(1958):77-82.
4. Moore, W. L., and Berlitz, C. The Philadelphia Experiment: Project Invisibility. New York: Fawcett Crest, 1979, Ch. 10.
5. Rho Sigma, Ether Technology: A Rational Approach to Gravity Control Lakemont, GA: CSA Printing & Bindery, 1977, p. 44-49, quoting a letter from T. Brown dated February 14,1973.
6. Brown, T. T. “Electrokinetic apparatus.” U.S. patent #2,949,550 (filed July 1957, issued August 1960).
7. Intel. “Towards flight without stress or strain…or weight.” Interavia Magazine 11(5) (1956):373-374.
8. Rose, M. “The flying saucer: The application of the Biefeld-Brown effect to the solution of the problems of space navigation.” University for Social Research, April 8, 1952.

9. LaViolette, P. A. “An introduction to subquantum kinetics: Part n. An open systems description of particles and fields.” In International Journal of General Systems, Special Issue on Systems Thinking in Physics 11 (1985):295-328.
10. LaViolette, P. A. Subquantum Kinetics: The Alchemy of Creation. Schenectady, NY, 1994.
11. LaViolette, P. A. Beyond the Big Bang: Ancient Myth and the Science of Continuous Creation. Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions Intl., 1994.
12. LaViolette, P. A. “A theory of electrogravitics.” Electric Spacecraft Journal, Issue 8,1993, pp. 33 – 36.
13. LaViolette, P. A. “A Tesla wave physics for a free energy universe.” Proceedings of the 1990 International Tesla Symposium, Colorado Springs, CO: International Tesla Society, 1991, pp. 5.1 – 5.19.
14. Aviation Studies (International) Ltd. Electrogravitics Systems: An examination of electrostatic motion, dynamic counterbary and barycentric control Report GRG 013/56 by Aviation Studies, Special Weapons Study Unit, London, February 1956. (Library of Congress No. 3,1401,00034,5879; CallNo.TL565.A9).
15. LaViolette, P. “Electrogravitics: Back to the future.” Electric Spacecraft Journal, Issue 4, 1992, pp. 23-28.
16. LaViolette, P. “Electrogravitics: An energy-efficient means of spacecraft propulsion.” Explore 3 (1991): 76-79; idea No. 100159 submitted to NASA’s 1990 Space Exploration Outreach Program.
17. Aviation Studies (International) Ltd. The Gravitics Situation, prepared by Gravity Rand Ltd. _ a division of Aviation Studies, London, December 1956.
18. “Northrop studying sonic boom remedy.” Aviation Week & Space Technology, Jan. 22, 1968, p 21.
19. Brown, T. T. “Electrokinetic generator.” U.S. patent #3,022,430 (filed July 1957, issued February 1962).
20. Rhodes, L. “Ex-NASA expert says Stealth uses parts from UFO.” Arkansas Democrat, Little Rock, AR, April 9, 1990.
21. Brown, T. T. “Electrokinetic apparatus.” U.S. patent #3,187,206 (filed May 1958, issued June 1965).
22. Aviation Studies, Electrogravitics Systems, op. cit., pp. 21-27.
23. Scott, W.B. Inside the Stealth Bomber. Tab/Aero Books: New York, 1991.

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