Wardenclyffe Foreclosure Proceedings, pp.177-179; Nikola Tesla for Defendant—Direct: “Yes. You see the underground work is one of the most expensive parts of the tower. In this system that I have invented it is necessary for the machine to get a grip of the earth, otherwise it cannot shake the earth. It has to have a grip on the earth so that the whole of this globe can quiver, and to do that it is necessary to carry out a very expensive construction.”
WIRELESS ENERGY TRANSMISSION thru the EARTH
“Wireless communications is not as demanding as the transmission of power. Tesla seems to have favoured carrier frequencies in the range of tens of kilohertz or so, which would be reasonable for transmission of information at a useful rate. He had in mind transmitters and receivers as those shown in his patent drawings, communicating through the earth via current from the ground terminal of the transmitter and the partially or wholly ionized path described above. This raises the question of whether the current from the ground terminal of a Tesla transmitter, which definitely would exist, would have a range comparable to or greater than that of a radio wave from a radio transmitter of the same power and frequency, and the induced earth current that would accompany it.
The closed circuit system consists of a large Tesla coil transmitter, an ionized path connecting the transmitter to the upper atmosphere, the upper atmosphere, a second ionized path connecting the upper atmosphere back down to a receiving location, and the receiver itself. The circuit back to the transmitter is completed through the earth. The upper atmosphere, like any low-pressure gas, is not an ohmic conductor, but will conduct electricity if broken down; i.e., ionized. The portion of the upper atmosphere between the transmitter and the receiver would then conduct current like a neon tube of planetary proportions. It would require a certain amount of energy to maintain the electrical discharge through it.”
CREATING an EARTH CIRCUIT
Crowdfunded project seeks to recreate inventor’s wireless energy transmission system
by Derek Markham / June 11, 2014
By many accounts, the iconic inventor Nikola Tesla was years ahead of his time. His ideas for a worldwide wireless communications system, and a wireless energy transmission technology, never got the traction they perhaps may have deserved during his lifetime, and but now, over a century later, two scientists are retracing his steps and plan to build a prototype of his Wardenclyffe tower using modern materials and advanced electronics. The Planetary Energy Transmitter project seeks to crowdfund $800,000 in donations in order to build the Tesla Tower prototype, and to continue Tesla’s research into wireless energy transmission and reception, which is intended to demonstrate the viability and efficiency of the technology. If the prototype functions as intended, and further research into wireless power reception plays out as well, the Tesla tower and wireless receivers could “allow transmission of large amounts of energy via ground to any kind of distances – instantly, safely and without losses.”
“Nikola Tesla had left us a very detailed description of the design of his Magnifying Transmitter system and the physical principles of its operation. We are a group of modern-day physicists, trained in many areas related to the operation of his Worldwide Energy System. We’ve conducted a thorough scientific expertise of his works and came to the conclusion that Tesla was on the right track.” – Planetary Energy Transmitter
At first glance, trying to raise almost a million dollars to underwrite the continuance of research and development of a century-old technology might seem a little ambitious, but considering that an effort to crowdfund the money just for a museum for Tesla(which might be a really great thing, but which won’t produce any new work) ended up raising $1.3 million, it doesn’t seem that far out of reach. If the calculations of the two scientists behind the Tesla tower project, Leonid Plekhanov and Sergey Plekhanov, are correct, and the appropriate supporting infrastructure for reception of wireless energy transmissions is developed, we may be able to effectively power the entire globe with renewable energy sources, such as solar, due to the possibility of transmitting it with minimal losses. According to their website, “Now it is possible to instantly transmit electric energy to any distances via ground!”
The scientists, who are both graduates of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), have spent over 5 years conducting research and experiments related to their project, and were earlier able to raise $40,000 in a Russian crowdfunding campaign based on their work. A basic website, Global Energy Transmission, has an introduction to the principles behind this wireless energy transfer tower, as well as documentation with the details and tech specifications of the team’s work. If you’d like to back this ambitious wireless energy project, the Indiegogo campaign is running through July 25th, or if you’d like to work with the team as an inventor, an engineer, or an energy company, or even to critique it and tell them why it won’t work, contact emails are available at the bottom of that page. Actually, I’ll give you the criticism contact info here (criticism [at] globalenergytransmission.com), but I do hope you’ll go read through the details there before firing off a nasty email to them.
by Nikola Tesla / 1919
“I have been asked by the Electrical Experimenter to be quite explicit on this subject so that my young friends among the readers of the magazine will clearly understand the construction and operation of my “Magnifying Transmitter” and the purposes for which it is intended. Well, then, in the first place, it is a resonant transformer with a secondary in which the parts, charged to a high potential, are of considerable area and arranged in space along ideal enveloping surfaces of very large radii of curvature, and at proper distances from one another thereby insuring a small electric surface density everywhere so that no leak can occur even if the conductor is bare. It is suitable for any frequency, from a few to many thousands of cycles per second, and can be used in the production of currents of tremendous volume and moderate pressure, or of smaller amperage and immense electro-motive force. The maximum electric tension is merely dependent on the curvature of the surfaces on which the charged elements are situated and the area of the latter. “The ‘World-System’ is based on the application of the following important inventions and discoveries:
“1. The ‘Tesla Transformer.’ This apparatus is in the production of electrical vibrations as revolutionary as gunpowder was in warfare. Currents many times stronger than any ever generated in the usual ways, and sparks over one hundred feet long, have been produced by the inventor with an instrument of this kind.
“2. The ‘Magnifying Transmitter.’ This is Tesla’s best invention–a peculiar transformer specially adapted to excite the Earth, which is in the transmission of electrical energy what the telescope is in astronomical observation. By the use of this marvelous device he has already set up electrical movements of greater intensity than those of lightning and passed a current, sufficient to light more than two hundred incandescent lamps, around the Globe.
“3. The ‘Tesla Wireless System.’ This system comprises a number of improvements and is the only means known for transmitting economically electrical energy to a distance without wires. Careful tests and measurements in connection with an experimental station of great activity, erected by the inventor in Colorado, have demonstrated that power in any desired amount can be conveyed, clear across the Globe if necessary, with a loss not exceeding a few per cent.
“4. The ‘Art of Individualization.’ This invention of Tesla is to primitive ‘tuning’ what refined language is to unarticulated expression. It makes possible the transmission of signals or messages absolutely secret and exclusive both in the active and passive aspect, that is, non-interfering as well as non-interferable. Each signal is like an individual of unmistakable identity and there is virtually no limit to the number of stations or instruments which can be simultaneously operated without the slightest mutual disturbance.
“5. ‘The terrestrial Stationary Waves.’ This wonderful discovery, popularly explained, means that the Earth is responsive to electrical vibrations of definite pitch just as a tuning fork to certain waves of sound. These particular electrical vibrations, capable of powerfully exciting the Globe, lend themselves to innumerable uses of great importance commercially and in many other respects.
“The first ‘World-System’ power plant can be put in operation in nine months. With this power plant it will be practicable to attain electrical activities up to ten million horsepower and it is designed to serve for as many technical achievements as are possible without due expense. Among these the following may be mentioned:
“(1) The inter-connection of the existing telegraph exchanges or offices all over the world;
“(2) The establishment of a secret and non-interferable government telegraph service;
“(3) The inter-connection of all the present telephone exchanges or offices on the Globe;
“(4) The universal distribution of general news, by telegraph or telephone, in connection with the Press;
“(5) The establishment of such a ‘World-System’ of intelligence transmission for exclusive private use;
“(6) The inter-connection and operation of all stock tickers of the world;
“(7) The establishment of a ‘World-System’ of musical distribution, etc.;
“(8) The universal registration of time by cheap clocks indicating the hour with astronomical precision and requiring no attention whatever;
“(9) The world transmission of typed or handwritten characters, letters, checks, etc.;
“(10) The establishment of a universal marine service enabling the navigators of all ships to steer perfectly without compass, to determine the exact location, hour and speed, to prevent collisions and disasters, etc.;
“(11) The inauguration of a system of world-printing on land and sea;
“(12) The world reproduction of photographic pictures and all kinds of drawings or records.”
I also proposed to make demonstrations in the wireless transmission of power on a small scale but sufficient to carry conviction. Besides these I referred to other and incomparably more important applications of my discoveries which will be disclosed at some future date. A plant was built on Long Island with a tower 187 feet high, having a spherical terminal about 68 feet in diameter. These dimensions were adequate for the transmission of virtually any amount of energy. Originally only from 200 to 300 K.W. were provided but I intended to employ later several thousand horsepower. The transmitter was to emit a wave-complex of special characteristics and I had devised a unique method of telephonic control of any amount of energy.
The tower was destroyed two years ago but my projects are being developed and another one, improved in some features, will be constructed. On this occasion I would contradict the widely circulated report that the structure was demolished by the Government which owing to war conditions, might have created prejudice in the minds of those who may not know that the papers, which thirty years ago conferred upon me the honor of American citizenship, are always kept in a safe, while my orders, diplomas, degrees, gold medals and other distinctions are packed away in old trunks. If this report had a foundation I would have been refunded a large sum of money which I expended in the construction of the tower. On the contrary it was in the interest of the Government to preserve it, particularly as it would have made possible — to mention just one valuable result — the location of a submarine in any part of the world. My plant, services, and all my improvements have always been at the disposal of the officials and ever since the outbreak of the European conflict I have been working at a sacrifice on several inventions of mine relating to aerial navigation, ship propulsion and wireless transmission which are of the greatest importance to the country. Those who are well informed know that my ideas have revolutionized the industries of the United States and I am not aware that there lives an inventor who has been, in this respect, as fortunate as myself especially as regards the use of his improvements in the war. I have refrained from publicly expressing myself on this subject before as it seemed improper to dwell on personal matters while all the world was in dire trouble. I would add further, in view of various rumors which have reached me, that Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan did not interest himself with me in a business way but in the same large spirit in which he has assisted many other pioneers. He carried out his generous promise to the letter and it would have been most unreasonable to expect from him anything more. He had the highest regard for my attainments and gave me every evidence of his complete faith in my ability to ultimately achieve what I had set out to do. I am unwilling to accord to some small-minded and jealous individuals the satisfaction of having thwarted my efforts. These men are to me nothing more than microbes of a nasty disease. My project was retarded by laws of nature. The world was not prepared for it. It was too far ahead of time. But the same laws will prevail in the end and make it a triumphal success.
the ANNIHILATION of DISTANCE
The Transmission of Electrical Energy Without Wires as a Means for Furthering Peace
by Nikola Tesla / 1905
Universal peace, assuming it to be in the fullest sense realizable, might not require eons for its accomplishment, however probable this may appear, judging from the imperceptibly slow growth of all great reformatory ideas of the past. Man, as a mass in movement, is inseparable from sluggishness and persistence in his life manifestations, but it does not follow from this that any passing phase, or any permanent state of his existence, must necessarily be attained through astataclitic process of development. Our accepted estimates of the duration of natural metamorphoses, or changes in general, have been thrown in doubt of late. The very foundations of science have been shaken. We can no longer believe in the Maxwellian hypothesis of transversal ether-undulations and the literal truth of its corollaries. The practical utilization of electrical vibrations, this most important field of human endeavor, particularly in the advancement of philanthropy and peace, was in no small measure retarded by that fascinating illusion, which I since long hoped to dispel. I have noted with satisfaction the first signs of a change of scientific opinion. The brilliant discovery of the exceptionally “radio-active” substances, radium and polonium, by Mrs. Sklodowska Curie, has likewise afforded me much personal gratification, being an eclatant confirmation of my early experimental demonstrations, of electrified radian streams of primary matter or corpuscular emanations (Electrical Review, New York, 1896-1897), which were then received with incredulity. They have awakened us from the poetical dream of an intangible conveyor of energy, weightless, structureless ether, to the plain, palpable reality of a ponderous medium of coarse particles, or bodily carriers of force. They have led us to a radically new interpretation of the changes and transformations we perceive. Enlightened by this recognition, we cannot say the sun is hot, the moon is cold, the star is bright, for all these might be purely electrical phenomena. If this be the case, then even our conceptions of time and space may have to be modified.
So, too, as regards the organic world, a similar revolution of thought is distinctly observable. In biological and zoological research the bold ideas of Haensel have found support in recent discoveries. A heretic belief in such possibilities as the artificial production of simple living material aggregates, the spontaneous natural creation of complex organisms and willful sex control, is gaining ground. We still brush it aside, but not with pedantic disdain as before. The fact is — our faith in the orthodox theory of slow evolution is being destroyed! Thus a state of human life vaguely defined by the term “Universal Peace,” while a result of cumulative effort through centuries past, might come into existence quickly, not unlike a crystal suddenly forms in a solution which has been slowly prepared. But just as no effect can precede its cause, so this state can never be brought on by any pact between nations, however solemn. Experience is made before the law is formulated, both are related like cause and effect. So long as we are clearly conscious of the expectation, that peace is to result from such a parliamentary decision, so long have we a conclusive evidence that we are not fit for peace. Only then when we shall feel that such international meetings are mere formal procedures, unnecessary except in so far as they might serve to give definite expression to a common desire, will peace be assured.
To judge from current events we must be, as yet, very distant from that blissful goal. It is true that we are proceeding towards it rapidly. There are abundant signs of this progress everywhere. The race enmities and prejudices are decidedly waning. A recent act of His Excellency, the President of the United States, is significant in this respect. We begin to think cosmically. Our sympathetic feelers reach out into the dim distance. The bacteria of the “Weltschmerz,” are upon us. So far, however, universal harmony has been attained only in a single sphere of international relationship. That is the postal service. Its mechanism is working satisfactorily, but — how remote are we still from that scrupulous respect of the sanctity of the mail bag! And how much farther again is the next milestone on the road to peace — an international judicial service equally reliable as the postal! The coming meeting at the Hague, now indefinitely postponed, can only consider temporary expedients. General disarmament being for the present entirely out of question, a proportionate reduction might be recommended. The safety of any country and of the world’s commerce depending not on the absolute, but relative amount of war material, this would be evidently the first reasonable step to take towards universal economy and peace. But it would be a hopeless task to establish an equitable basis of adjustment. Population, naval strength, force of army, commercial importance, water-power, or any other natural resource, actual or prospective, are equally unsatisfactory standards to consider.
In view of this difficulty a measure suggested by Carnegie might be adopted by a few strong countries to scare all the weaker ones into peace. But while for the time being such a course may seem advisable, the beneficial effects of this homeopathic treatment of the martial disease could hardly be lasting. In the first place, a coalition of the leading powers could not fail to create an organized opposition, which might result in a disaster all the greater as it was long deferred. The ultimate falling out of the virtuous, peace-dictating nations, as certain as the law of gravitation, should be all the more reckoned with, as it would be extremely demoralizing. Again, it is by no means demonstrated that any combination of a few powers would have sufficient authority. To conquer by sheer force is becoming harder and harder every day. Defensive is getting continuously the advantage of offensive, as we progress in the satanic science of destruction. The new art of controlling electrically the movements and operations of individualized automata at a distance without wires, will soon enable any country to render its coasts impregnable against all naval attacks. It is to be regretted, in this connection, that my proposal to the United States Navy four years ago, to introduce this invention, did not receive the least encouragement. Also that my offer to Secretary Long to establish telegraphic communication across the Pacific Ocean by my wireless system was thrown in the naval waste basket in Washington, quite sans façon. At that time I had already announced in the Century Magazine of June, 1900, my successful “girdling” of the globe with electrical impulses (stationary waves), and my “telautomata” had been publicly exhibited. But that was not the fault of the naval officials, for then these inventions of mine were decried as bald, visionary schemes, loudest indeed by those who have since become Cræsuses of Promise — in “light” storage batteries, “Ocean” telephony and “transatlantic” wireless telegraphy, yet remained to this day — Sisyphuses of Attainment. Had only a few “telautomatic” torpedoes been constructed and adopted by our navy, the mere moral influence of this would have been powerfully and most beneficially felt in the present Eastern Complication. Not to speak of the advantages which might have been secured through the direct and instantaneous transmission of messages to our distant colonies and scenes of the present barbarous conflicts. Since advancing that principle, I have invented a number of improvements, making it possible to direct such a torpedo, submersible at will, from a distance much greater than the range of the largest gun, with unerring precision, upon the object to be destroyed. What is still more surprising, the operator will not need to see the infernal engine or even know its location, and the enemy will be unable to interfere, in the slightest, with its movements by any electrical means. One of these devil-telautomata will soon be constructed, and I shall bring it to the attention of governments. The development of this art must unavoidably arrest the construction of expensive battleships as well as land fortifications, and revolutionize the means and methods of warfare. The distance at which it can strike, and the destructive power of such aquasi-intelligent machine being for all practical purposes unlimited, the gun, the armor of the battleship and the wall of the fortress, lose their import and significance. One can prophesy with a Daniel’s confidence that skilled electricians will settle the battles of the near future. But this is the least. In its effect upon war and peace, electricity offers still much greater and more wonderful possibilities. To stop war by the perfection of engines of destruction alone, might consume centuries and centuries. Other means must be employed to hasten the end. What are these to be? Let us consider.
Fights between individuals, as well as governments and nations, invariably result from misunderstandings in the broadest interpretation of this term. Misunderstandings are always caused by the inability of appreciating one another’s point of view. This again is due to the ignorance of those concerned, not so much in their own, as in their mutual fields. The peril of a clash is aggravated by a more or less predominant sense of combativeness, posed by every human being. To resist this inherent fighting tendency the best was is to dispel ignorance of the doings of others by a systematic spread of general knowledge. With this object in view, it is most important to aid exchange of thought and intercourse. Mutual understanding would be immensely facilitated by the use of one universal tongue. But which shall it be, is the great question. At present it looks as if the English might be adopted as such, though it must be admitted that it is not the most suitable. Each language, of course, excels in some feature. The English lends itself to a terse, forceful expression of facts. The French is precise and finely distinctive. The Italian is probably the most melodious and easiest to learn. The Slavic tongues are very rich in sound but extremely difficult to master. The German is unequaled in the facility it offers for coining and combining words. A practical answer to that momentous question must perforce be found in times to come, for it is manifest that by adopting one common language the onward march of man would be prodigiously quickened. I do not believe that an artificial concoction, like Volapuk, will ever find universal acceptance, however time-saving it might be. That would be contrary to human nature. Languages have grown into our hearts. I rather look to the possibility of a reversion to the old Latin or Greek mother tongues, basing myself in this conclusion on the Spencerian law of rhythm. It seems unfortunate that the English-speaking nations, who are now fittest to rule the world, while endowed with extraordinary energy and practical intelligence, are singularly wanting in linguistic talent.
Next to speech we must consider permanent records of all kinds as a means for disseminating general information, or that knowledge of mutual endeavor which is chiefly conducive to harmony. Here the newspapers play by far the most important part. They are undoubtedly more effective than institutions of learning, libraries, museums and individual correspondence, all combined. The knowledge they convey is, on the whole, superficial and sometimes defective, but it is poured out in a mighty stream that reaches far and wide. Disregarding the force of electrical invention, that of journalism is the greatest in urging us to peace. Our schools are instrumental, mainly, in the furtherance of special thorough knowledge in our own fields, which is destructive of concordance. A world composed of crass specialists only would be perpetually at war. The diffusion of general knowledge through libraries and similar sources of information is very slow. As to individual correspondence, it is principally useful as an indispensable ingredient of the cement of commercial interest, that most powerful binding material between heterogeneous masses of humanity. It would be hard to overestimate the beneficial influence of the marvelous and precise art of photography, nor can that of other arts or means of recording be ignored. But a simple reflection will show that the peace-making force of all permanent, printed, printed or other records, resides not in themselves. It must be sought elsewhere. This is also true of speech.
Our senses enable us to perceive only a minute portion of the outside world. Our touch, taste and smell, require actual contact. Our hearing extends to a small distance. Our sight is impeded by intervening bodies and shadows. To know each other we must reach beyond the sphere of our sense perceptions. We must transmit our intelligence, travel, transport the materials and transfer the energies necessary for our existence. Following this thought we now realize, forcibly enough to dispense with argument, that of all other conquests of man, without exception, that which is most desirable, which would be most helpful in the establishment of universal peaceful relations is — the complete ANNIHILATION OF DISTANCE. To achieve this wonder, electricity is the one and only means. Inestimable good has already been done by the use of this all powerful agent, the nature of which is still a mystery. Our astonishment at what has been accomplished would be uncontrollable were it not held in check by the expectation of greater miracles to come. That one, the greatest of all, can be viewed in three aspects: Dissemination of intelligence, transportation, and transmission of power.
Referring to the first, the present systems of telegraphic and telephonic communication are very limited in scope. The conducting channels are costly and of small working capacity. There is serious inductive disturbance, and storms render the service unsafe which, moreover, is too expensive. A vast improvement will be effected by placing the wires underground and insulating them artificially, by refrigeration. Their working capacity also could be indefinitely augmented by resorting to the new principle of “individualization,” which I have more recently announced, permitting the simultaneous transmission of thousands of telegraphic and telephonic messages, without interference, over a single wire. The public would be already profiting from these great advances were it not for the stolid indifference of the leading companies engaged in the transmission of intelligence. But new concerns are springing into existence and the near future will witness a great transformation along these two lines of invention. The submarine cables are subject to still greater limitations. Some obstacles to rapid signaling, through them, seem insuperable. The attempts to overcome these have been numerous, but so far all have proved futile. The celebrated mathematician, O. Heaviside, and several able electricians following in his footsteps, have fallen into the singular error that rapid telegraphy and even telephony through ocean cables would be made practicable by the use of induction coils. Inductances might be to some extent helpful on comparatively short lines with thick paper insulation; on long lines insulated with rubber or gutta-percha they would be positively detrimental. Improvements will, undoubtedly, be made, but great electrostatic capacity and unavoidable loss of energy in the insulation and surrounding conductors will always restrict the usefulness of these delicate and precious nerves of commerce. Apart from all this, the transmission through artificial conductors is necessarily confined to a small number of stations.
It is therefore evident that the abolishment of all these drawbacks by the conveyance of signals or messages without wires, as I have undertaken in my “world” telegraphy and telephony, will be of the greatest moment in the furtherance of peace. The unifying influence of this advance will be felt all the more, as it will not only completely annihilate distance, but also make it possible to operate from a singe “world” telegraphy plant, an unlimited number of receiving stations distributed all over the globe, and with equal facility, irrespective of location. Within a few years a simple and inexpensive device, readily carried about, will enable one to receive on land or sea the principal news, to hear a speech, a lecture, a song or play of a musical instrument, conveyed from any other region of the globe. The invention will also meet the crying need for cheap transmission to great distances, more especially over the oceans. The small working capacity of the cables and the excessive cost of messages are now fatal impediments in the dissemination of intelligence which can only be removed by transmission without wires.
The deficiencies of Hertzian telegraphy have created in the public mind the impression that exclusive or private messages without the use of artificial channels are impracticable. As a matter of fact, nothing could be more erroneous. Ever since its first appearance in 1891, I have denied the commercial possibilities of the system of signaling by Hertzian or electromagnetic waves, and my forecasts have been fully confirmed. It lends itself little to tuning, still less to the higher artifices of “individualization,” and transmission to considerable distances is wholly out of the question. Portentous claims for this method of communication were made three years ago, but they have been unable to stand the hard, cruel test of time. Moreover, I have recently learned through the leading British electrical journal (Electrician, London, February 27, 1903), that some experimenters have abandoned all their own and have been “converted” to my methods and appliances, without my approval and officiation. I was both astonished and pained — astonished at the nonchalance and lack of appreciation of these men, pained at the inability exhibited in the construction and use of my apparatus. My high hopes raised by that excellent journal, however, are still to be realized, for I have ascertained that His Majesty the King of England, His excellency the President of the United States, and other persons of exalted positions have, after all, not conferred upon me the imperishable honor of graciously condescending to the use for my coils, transformers and high-potential methods of transmission, but have exchanged their august greetings through the medium of a cable in the old-fashioned way. What has been actually achieved by Hertzian telegraphy can only be conjectured.
Quite different conditions exist in my system in which the electromagnetic waves or radiations are designedly minimized, the connection of one of the terminals of the transmitting circuit to the ground having, itself, the effect of reducing the energy of these radiations to about one-half. Under observance of proper rules and artifices the distance is of little or no consequence, and by skillful application of the principle of “individualization,” repeatedly referred to, the messages may be rendered both non-interfering and non-interferable. This invention, which I have described in technical publications, attempts to imitate, in a very crude way, the nervous system in the human body. It was the outcome of long-continued tests demonstrating the impossibility of satisfying rigorous commercial requirements by my earlier system, based on simple tuning, in which the selective quality is dependent on a single characteristic feature. In this later improvement the exclusiveness and non-interferability of impulses transmitted through a common channel result from cooperative association of a number of distinctive elements, and can be pushed as far as desired. In actual practice it is found that by combining only two vibrations or tones, a degree of privacy sufficient for most purposes is attained. When three vibrations are combined, it is extremely difficult, even for a skilled expert, to read or to disturb signals not intended for him, with four it is a vain undertaking. The probability of his getting the secret combinations at the right moments and in proper order, is much smaller than that of drawing an ambo, terno or quaterno, respectively, in a lottery. From experimental facts, I conclude that the invention will permit the simultaneous transmission of several millions of separately distinguishable messages through the earth, which, strangely enough, is in this respect much superior to an artificial conductor. This number ought to be sufficient to meet all the pressing necessities of intelligence transmission for at least one century to come. It is important to observe that but one “world” telegraphy plant, such as I am now completing, will have a greater working capacity than all the ocean cables combined. Once these facts are recognized this new art, which I am inaugurating, will sweep the world with the force of a uragan.
In transportation a great change is now going on. The trolley lines are being extended, the steam locomotive is making place for the electric motor. The ocean liners are adopting the turbine. Land travel is being improved by the automobile. The waterfalls are being harnessed and the energy used in the propulsion of cars. The advantages of first generating electricity by a prime mover, and then applying the current to produce mechanical motion, are being more and more appreciated. To the majority, this may appear a roundabout way of doing, but in reality it is as direct as the driving of a pulley from another by a belt. The idea is already being applied to railroads, and automobiles of this new type are making their appearance. The ocean vessels are bound to follow. An immense and virgin field will be thus opened up to the manufacturers of electric machinery. Effort towards saving time and money is characteristic of all modern methods of transportation. In many of these new developments, the artificial insulation of the high-tension mains by refrigeration will be very useful. However paradoxical, it is true, that by the use of this invention, power for all industrial purposes can be transmitted to distances of many hundreds of miles, not only without any loss, but with appreciable gain of energy. This is due to the fact that the conductor is much colder than the surrounding medium. The operativeness of this method is restricted to the use of a gaseous refrigerant, no known liquid permitting the attainment of a sufficiently low temperature of the transmission line. Hydrogen is by far the best cooling agent to employ. By its use electric railways can be extended to any desired distance. Owing to the smallness of ohmic loss, the objections to the multiphase system disappear and induction motors with closed coil armatures can be adopted. I find that even transmission through a submarine cable, as from Sweden to England, of great amounts of power is perfectly practicable. But the ideal solution of the problem of transportation will be arrived at only when the complete annihilation of distance in the transmission of power in large amounts shall have become a commercial reality. That day we shall invade the domain of the bird. When the vexing problem of aerial navigation, which has defied his attempts for ages, is solved, man will advance with giant strides.
That electrical energy can be economically transmitted without wires to any terrestrial distance, I have unmistakably established in numerous observations, experiments and measurements, qualitative and quantitative. These have demonstrated that is practicable to distribute power from a central plant in unlimited amounts, with a loss not exceeding a small fraction of one per cent. in the transmission, even to the greatest distance, twelve thousand miles — to the opposite end of the globe. This seemingly impossible feat can now be readily performed by any electrician familiar with the design and construction of my “high-potential magnifying transmitter,” the most marvelous electrical apparatus of which I have knowledge, enabling the production of effects of unlimited intensities in the earth and its ambient atmosphere. It is, essentially, a freely vibrating secondary circuit of definite length, very high self-induction and small resistance, which has one of its terminals in intimate direct or inductive connection with the ground and the other with an elevated conductor, and upon which the electrical oscillations of a primary or exciting circuit are impressed under conditions of resonance. To give an idea of the capabilities of this wonderful appliance, I may state that I have obtained, by its means, spark discharges extending through more than one hundred feet and carrying currents of one thousand amperes, electromotive forces approximating twenty million volts, chemically active streamers covering areas of several thousand square feet, and electrical disturbances in the natural media surpassing those caused by lightning, in intensity.
Whatever the future may bring, the universal application of these great principles is fully assured, though it may be long in coming. With the opening of the first power plant, incredulity will give way to wonderment, and this to ingratitude, as ever before. The time is not distant when the energy of falling water will be man’s life energy. So far only about three million horse-power have been harnessed by my system of alternating-current transmission. This is little, but corresponds, nevertheless, to the adding of sixty million indefatigable laborers, working virtually without food and pay, to the world’s population. The projects which have come to my own attention, however, contemplate the exploitation of water-powers aggregating something like one hundred and fifty million horse-power. Should they be carried out in a quarter of a century, as seems probable from present indications, there will be, on the average two such untiring laborers for every individual. Long before this consummation, coal and oil must cease to be important factors in the sustenance of human life on this planet. It should be borne in mind that electrical energy obtained by harnessing a waterfall is probably fifty times more effective than fuel energy. Since this is the most perfect way of rendering the sun’s energy available, the direction of the future material development of man is clearly indicated. He will live on “white coal.” Like a babe to the mothers’s breast will he cling to his waterfall. “Give us our daily waterfall,” will be the prayer of the coming generations. Deus futurus est deus aquae deiectus!
But the fact that stationary waves are producible in the earth is of special and, in many ways, still greater significance in the intellectual development of humanity. Popularly explained, such a wave is a phenomenon generically akin to an echo — a result of reflection. It affords a positive and uncontrovertible experimental evidence that the electric current, after passing into the earth travels to the diametrically opposite region of the same and rebounding from there, returns to its point of departure with virtually undiminished force. The outgoing and returning currents clash and form nodes and loops similar to those observable on a vibrating cord. To traverse the entire distance of about twenty-five thousand miles, equal to the circumference of the globe, the current requires a certain time interval, which I have approximately ascertained. In yielding this knowledge, nature has revealed one of its most precious secrets, of inestimable consequence to man. So astounding are the facts in this connection, that it would seem as though the Creator, himself, had electrically designed this planet just for the purpose of enabling us to achieve wonders which, before my discovery, could not have been conceived by the wildest imagination. A full account of my discoveries and improvements will be given to the world in a special work which I am preparing. In so far, however, as they relate to industrial and commercial uses, they will be disclosed in patent specifications most carefully drawn.
As stated in a recent article (Electrical World and Engineer, March 5, 1904), I have been since some time at work on designs of a power plant which is to transmit ten thousand horse-power without wires. The energy is to be collected al over the earth at many places and in varying amounts. It should not be understood that the practical realization of this undertaking is necessarily far off. The plans could be easily finished this winter, and if some preliminary work on the foundations could be done in the meantime the plant might be ready for operation before the close of next fall. We would then have at our disposal a unique and invaluable machine. Just this one oscillator would advance the world a century. Its civilizing influence would be felt even by the humblest dweller in the wilderness. Millions of instruments of all kinds, for all imaginable purposes, could be operated from that one machine. Universal time could be distributed by simple inexpensive clocks requiring no attention and running with nearly mathematical precision. Stock-tickers, synchronous movements and innumerable devices of this character could be worked in unison all over the earth. Instruments might be provided for indicating the course of a vessel at sea, the distance traversed, the speed, the hour at any particular place, the latitude and longitude. Incalculable commercial advantages could be thus secured and countless accidents and disasters avoided. Here and there a house might be lighted or some other work requiring a few horse-power performed. What is far more important than this, flying machines might be driven in any part of the world. They could be made to travel swiftly because of their small weight and great motive power. My intention would be to utilize this first plant rather as means of enlightenment, to collect its power in very small amounts, and at as many places as possible. The knowledge that there is throbbing through the earth energy readily available everywhere, would exert a strong stimulus on students, mechanics and inventors of all countries. This would be productive of infinite good. Manufacture would receive a fresh and powerful incentive. Conditions, such as never existed before in commerce, would be brought about. Supply would be ever inadequate to demand. The industries of iron, copper, aluminum, insulated wire and many others, could not fail to derive great and lasting benefits from this development.
The economic transmission of power without wires is of all-surpassing importance to man. By its means he will gain complete mastery of the air, the sea and the desert. It will enable him to dispense with the necessity of mining, pumping, transporting and burning fuel, and so do away with innumerable causes of sinful waste. By its means, he will obtain at any place and in any desired amount, the energy of remote waterfalls — to drive his machinery, to construct his canals, tunnels and highways, to manufacture the materials of his want, his clothing and food, to heat and light his home — year in, year out, ever and ever, by day and by night. It will make the living glorious sun his obedient, toiling slave. It will bring peace and harmony on earth.
Over five years have elapsed since that providential lightning storm on the 3d of July, 1899, of which I told in the article before mentioned, and through which I discovered the terrestrial stationary waves; nearly five years since I performed the great experiment which on that unforgettable day, the dark God of Thunder mercifully showed me in his vast, awe-sounding laboratory. I thought then that it would take a year to establish commercially my wireless girdle around the world. Alas! my first “world telegraphy” plant is not yet completed, its construction has progressed but slowly during the past two years. And this machine I am building is but a plaything, an oscillator of a maximum activity of only ten million horse-power, just enough to throw this planet into feeble tremors, by sign and word — to telegraph and to telephone. When shall I see completed that first power plant, that big oscillator which I am designing! From which a current stronger than that of a welding machine, under a tension of one hundred million volts, is to rush through the earth! Which will deliver energy at the rate of one thousand million horse-power — one hundred Falls of Niagara combined in one, striking the universe with blows — blows that will wake from their slumber the sleepiest electricians, if there be any, on Venus or Mars! . . . It is not a dream, it is a simple feat of scientific electrical engineering, only expensive — blind, faint-hearted, doubting world! . . . Humanity is not yet sufficiently advanced to be willingly led by the discoverer’s keen searching sense. But who knows? Perhaps it is better in this present world of ours that a revolutionary idea or invention instead of being helped and patted, be hampered and ill-treated in its adolescence — by want of means, by selfish interest, pedantry, stupidity and ignorance; that it be attacked and stifled; that it pass through bitter trials and tribulations, through the heartless strife of commercial existence. So do we get our light. So all that was great in the past was ridiculed, condemned, combated, suppressed — only to emerge all the more powerfully, all the more triumphantly from the struggle.
“…An eminent professor from Serbia accused the USA of covert weather warfare, using the HAARP military science project to produce artificial clouds and the floods so as to exterminate the Serbs, who are of course the elected people of the world in this phase of history. These conspiracy theories never lack in natural disasters all over the world. These Serbian fables are particularly dear to my heart because they come in my own language of ignorance and megalomania. The HAARP paranoia comes straight from the legendary claims of Nikola Tesla that he could use electromagnetic wave power to destroy the world. Of course Tesla was a Serb (or a Vlach, which is close enough) and he serves as a kind of Moses for Biblical-scale devastation of this kind.”
Aerial view of the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program site (image by United States Federal Government)
MEANWHILE : U.S. MILITARY LOOKING to SELL HAARP
“…Still, military officials have made other remarks which seem to portray HAARP as a prototype weapon: “…engaging even in an eco-type of terrorism whereby they can alter the climate, set off earthquakes, volcanoes remotely through the use of electromagnetic waves. So there are plenty of ingenious minds out there that are at work finding ways in which they can wreak terror upon other nations. It’s real, and that’s the reason why we have to intensify our efforts,” William Cohen, U.S. defense secretary, said in 1997…”
“Managing the ionosphere for military needs, such as communication, appeared a promising idea back in the early 1990s, when the US Air Force, Navy, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the University of Alaska teamed up to fund the $290 million High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP). Officially, the facility has been involved in enhanced communications technologies research. Its 13 hectares of high-frequency antennas has been sending powerful (up to 3.6 megawatt signals), disturbing small portions in the upper layer of the atmosphere called the ionosphere, studying how it affected radio signals. The project’s staff always denied participation in any classified experiments. It was at the HAARP facility where the first man-made northern lights were demonstrated. Actually, the HAARP facility has not been active for the past year; last May it was shut down for a change in operations contractors. Reportedly, the facility performed its last experiment for DARPA in early 2014 and is now looking for financial support from the scientific community or other US agencies. Otherwise, the facility might be gone by summer. “We would prefer to start this summer,” Walker said. “We would like to get critical equipment out of the site before the winter. For the harsh winter in Alaska does lead to a very costly winterization to maintain the site and we’d like to avoid it if we can.”
Although the HAARP installation is two decades old, it is still operable and could be used for scientific research, but most probably not at the expense of the US military struggling to reduce spending. The annual costs of running the facility have been around $5 million. This is a mere drop in the ocean compared to the military’s total budget – over $600 billion for 2015. If American or foreign scientific institutions and laboratories fail to find the means to finance the unique installation, this page of human research into nature’s secrets is set to be closed. And Walker says there are “interested” universities.”
The HAARP antenna array near Gakona, Alaska. Credit: Michael Kleiman, US Air Force
Secret Weapon? Conspiracy Theories Abound as US Military Closes HAARP
by Stephanie Pappas / May 22, 2014
“The U.S. Air Force has notified Congress that it intends to shut down HAARP, a controversial Alaska-based research facility that studies an energetic and active region of the upper atmosphere. Conspiracy theorists are abuzz about the news, given that HAARP (short for High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program) has long been the center of wild speculation that the program is designed to control the weather— or worse. In 2010, Venezuelan leader Huge Chavez claimed that HAARP or a program like it triggered the Haiti earthquake. (For the record, the Haitian quake of 2010 was caused by the slippage of a previously unmapped fault along the border of the Caribbean and North American tectonic plates.)
HAARP is a research program designed to analyze the ionosphere, a portion of the upper atmosphere that stretches from about 53 miles (85 kilometers) above the surface of the Earth to 370 miles (600 km) up. The program has been funded by the Air Force, the Navy, the University of Alaska and DARPA (the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency).
Why HAARP (officially) exists
The U.S. military is interested in the ionosphere because this portion of the atmosphere plays a role in transmitting radio signals. HAARP sends radio beams into the ionosphere to study the responses from it — one of the few ways to accurately measure this inaccessible part of the atmosphere. HAARP operates out of the HAARP Research Station in Gakona, Alaska, where it has a high-power radio frequency transmitter that can perturb a small portion of the ionosphere. Other instruments are then used to measure the perturbations. The stated goal of the program is to understand the physics of the ionosphere, which is constantly responding to influences from the sun. Solar flares can send solar particles racing toward Earth, occasionally disrupting communications and the electrical grid. If scientists could better understand what happens in the ionosphere, they might be able to mitigate some of these problems. But the Air Force is no longer interested in maintaining HAARP, according to David Walker, the Air Force deputy assistant secretary for science, technology and engineering. At a Senate hearing on May 14, Walker said the Air Force has no interest in maintaining the site, and is moving in another direction in ionospheric research.
Politics and conspiracy
The Air Force’s plan to destroy HAARP has detractors. “While the Air Force neither wants nor appreciates the unique value of HAARP, users from several federal agencies, laboratories and universities, and friendly nations such as Canada, Britain, Taiwan, South Korea, Sweden and Norway, are eager to use its unique resources, which would further spread American influence and leadership,” Dennis Papadopoulos, a professor of physics and astronomy at the University of Maryland, wrote in an outraged opinion piece in the Alaska Dispatch. HAARP cost more than $290 million to build, much of it earmarked by late Senator Ted Stevens (R-Alaska), who had great influence over the U.S. defense budget during his time in Congress. The site was host to numerous projects over the years, including the creation of the first man-made aurora in 2005. The site’s generators now require remediation to meet the environmental standards set in the Clean Air Act, an expense no one seems keen to take on.
But conspiracy theorists think HAARP’s purpose is far more sinister than meets the eye. The program has been blamed for everything from global warming to natural disasters to mysterious humming noises in the sky. Name a natural phenomenon, and someone probably suspects HAARP of being behind it. Online, conspiracy theorists suggest that HAARP was to blame for the 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan; the Moore, Oklahoma, tornado of 2013; a landslide in 2006 in the Philippines; and many more natural disasters. Other conspiracy theories hold that HAARP controls people’s minds or is capable of altering the very fabric of reality. These theories have yet to subside, even though very little has been going on at HAARP over the past year. In May 2013, the site shut down during a change in operations contractors. At the time, the HAARP program manager told reporters that the site was temporarily closed and locked, with only one DARPA project left to wrap up by early 2014.”
Almost always, the US government’s response to any hint of success from New Energy inventors has been to raid their labs with an armed FBI or SWAT team, to confiscate (steal) the equipment and to issue a document like the following.
OPEN SOURCE, THANK YOU
All Our Patent Are Belong To You
by Elon Musk / June 12, 2014
“Yesterday, there was a wall of Tesla patents in the lobby of our Palo Alto headquarters. That is no longer the case. They have been removed, in the spirit of the open source movement, for the advancement of electric vehicle technology. Tesla Motors was created to accelerate the advent of sustainable transport. If we clear a path to the creation of compelling electric vehicles, but then lay intellectual property landmines behind us to inhibit others, we are acting in a manner contrary to that goal. Tesla will not initiate patent lawsuits against anyone who, in good faith, wants to use our technology.
When I started out with my first company, Zip2, I thought patents were a good thing and worked hard to obtain them. And maybe they were good long ago, but too often these days they serve merely to stifle progress, entrench the positions of giant corporations and enrich those in the legal profession, rather than the actual inventors. After Zip2, when I realized that receiving a patent really just meant that you bought a lottery ticket to a lawsuit, I avoided them whenever possible. At Tesla, however, we felt compelled to create patents out of concern that the big car companies would copy our technology and then use their massive manufacturing, sales and marketing power to overwhelm Tesla. We couldn’t have been more wrong. The unfortunate reality is the opposite: electric car programs (or programs for any vehicle that doesn’t burn hydrocarbons) at the major manufacturers are small to non-existent, constituting an average of far less than 1% of their total vehicle sales. At best, the large automakers are producing electric cars with limited range in limited volume. Some produce no zero emission cars at all.
Given that annual new vehicle production is approaching 100 million per year and the global fleet is approximately 2 billion cars, it is impossible for Tesla to build electric cars fast enough to address the carbon crisis. By the same token, it means the market is enormous. Our true competition is not the small trickle of non-Tesla electric cars being produced, but rather the enormous flood of gasoline cars pouring out of the world’s factories every day. We believe that Tesla, other companies making electric cars, and the world would all benefit from a common, rapidly-evolving technology platform. Technology leadership is not defined by patents, which history has repeatedly shown to be small protection indeed against a determined competitor, but rather by the ability of a company to attract and motivate the world’s most talented engineers. We believe that applying the open source philosophy to our patents will strengthen rather than diminish Tesla’s position in this regard.”
Examining Working Principle of Tesla Tower
by Sergey Plekhanov & Leonid Plekhanov
“Few years ago, we, authors of this article, were thoroughly examining patents, notes and lectures of N.Tesla (thanks to our education). Eventually, we came to conclusion that notorious wireless energy transmission Tesla Tower is not «fake». In fact, it is quite useful construction. Thus, fine and intrinsically simple concept, which complies with the principles of classical physics, was elaborated as a result of carrying out the diverse research and observation of primary scientific sources, formulization and exclusion of the hypotheses, performing very detailed analysis of obtained information along with subsequent data comparison etc. Elaborated concept was tested and conformed by means of computational modeling approach using software package called as Ansoft HFSS. Once the project began, we have initiated some discussions in different communities, where we were expected to have some sort of scientific article. This was the main reason for preparation of this material. This material cannot be considered as a firm theory that takes into account all possible aspects of working principle of the Tesla Tower. Nevertheless, we undertook an attempt to thoroughly describe proposed concept and provide reasonable computational estimation of basic features of the research investigation. Hence, please kindly familiarize yourself with this content in order to gain better understanding of proposed concept and to be able to take part in constructive discussion afterwards. Thus, our scientific article can serve only as a reference point in terms of commencing more thorough investigation of suggested concept. It is noteworthy that formulization of concept took some amount of time from us in order to become finalized.
The text below can be summarized by means of few sentences with the note «attention —elaborated for ordinary people». In such case, summary of the text would look like that: “Tower creates current and voltage resonance in transmission line being the entire Earth. At that, term ” transmission line” implies conductor, which is connected to the reference generator, that is, the Tower by means of one tail. In such case, Earth resistance has a minimum value (this fact is later explained in more details). Losses resulting from EM radiation do not lead to any crucial consequences due to ionosphere serving as some kind of “savior”. This is due to the fact that EM-radiation is finely reflected from the ionosphere and interacts with the Earth upon this act. Once reflected, EM-radiation shifts its location into transmission line – the Earth (likewise simulated wave field). Therefore, stable picture of standing current-voltage-charge waves is established in the Earth and accompanied by weak EM–radiation getting a rise between the Earth and ionosphere.
The initial stage of our research comprised thorough examination of the working principle of the Tesla Tower taking into consideration all the notes and patents provided by its principal developer. As a result, deeper understanding of physical processes given a rise to in the planet of Earth was gained. Therefore, it became clear to us that it is possible to perform power transmission by means of proposed and tested Tesla’s approach. At that, we relied upon the fact that Tesla’s patent is very descriptive on its nature and there are no any «hidden» parameters/processes existing. That is why we assume that so-called “ideas”, which are actively discussed in tabloids and mass media concerning the suggestion that Tesla undertook an attempt to “get environmental power” and use “radiant energy” via his power etc., are purely journalists’ speculations that are very far from real physics. In our opinion, working principle of the Tesla Tower completely corroborates with conventional physics laws and does not require complementary use of any other new concepts or physic effects. Therefore, our research and future investigation has solely applicative and by no means fundamental nature. If the nature of our article seems to be too complex for you, please kindly take a look at the article located here (this one is rather written for humanists and contains a series of rather incorrectly formulated concepts, however this source would help you to gain better understanding of the concept). Let us begin.
Tesla Tower: features of working principle
In principle, without considering specific technical peculiarities, Tesla Tower is helically formed quarter-wave resonator grounded by one tail with distributed parameters, and additional capacity being located in the upper end of the helix. This resonator is oscillated by means of reference generator (sinusoidal signal, oscillation frequency value is lower than 20 kHz if based on Tesla’s patents such as US787412and US1119732). In other words, principal circuit of the tower looks as follows:
On the left, you can see physical isolated capacity located in the top of tower (complements own coil’s capacity). On the right, you can observe conditional equivalent circuit, where it is especially outlined that the capacity is isolated. According to that drawing, capacity is located between Tower and perpetuity and not between Tower and the Earth as otherwise we would get conventional LC-chain grounded through the Earth). For the purpose of minimization of stray capacity between the Tower and the Earth, that is, shortcutting LC-chain of the Tower through the Earth, it is necessary to elevate isolated capacity from the ground. Simple assessment demonstrated that it is needed to elevate the capacity to the height, which is equal on its value to several average diameters of such capacity. At the observation of such condition, capacity between the Tower and the Earth will decrease on its value up to the value, which is comparable with own isolated capacity of the Tower.
It is well known from basics of classic electrical engineering that capacitive and inductive impedance cancel each other in a resonance mode. Therefore, generator “observes” only active resistance of the resonator. Standing wave with the voltage node in the generator point occurs in the helix. Current loop is located there, as well (at that, voltage loop and current node are located in the resonator’s tail). More detailed analytical theory of the working principle of such resonator can be found here. If material located there is too complex to be understood, it is possible to express everything said above in the following way: helically formed resonator of such kind simply represents quarter-wavelength transmission line folded up into helix. That is, standing wave of the current-voltages will exist in such “stretched” transmission line in such resonator at the resonant frequency with the voltage node at the one end of a line and current node on its other end. Essential different of that from the “stretched” long transmission line is only in amplified inductive and capacitive connection between neighboring segments of such a line due to the their geometrical proximity in helical configuration. The latter slightly alters resonant frequency and wave propagation speed along the line.
In this Figure, you can see standing waves in long transmissionline. Waves’ distribution is as follows: а – of the voltage; b – that of the current in single-wired transmission line (figure is taken from the following website)
In other words, the Tower represents current buffer – isolated capacity inside of which reference power generator “brings” charge from the ground. At that, EM-radiation in terms of radio waves (that is a field in distantly located wave zone of the Tower) is practically absent with regard to our range of working parameters. Let us demonstrate this in details. There exists such a term as helical antennas in a field of radio physics. Primarily, such term can be related to such helix resonator. However, compared to antennas, electrical length of one turn of the Tower is smaller than wavelength by 1000 to 10 000 times (that is, number of turns can reach up to thousands considering the fact that total length of the coil is approximately equal to the quarter of wavelength). At that, the greatest part of the currents (current loop) is concentrated in the lower half of the Tower. Hence, such a structure acts as classical conventional concentrated inductivity in terms of external EM-radiation. It is conventional magnetic dipole. The equation defining radiation resistance of the electrically short magnetic frame (magnetic dipole) with the wavelength denoted as λ is well known (radiation resistance describes the losses of conductor for the radiation of EM-waves, i.e. current power loss for the radiation is considered as formal active resistance losses of which are equal to those spent for the radiation):
(equation 8.148 can be found by checking the link indicated above)
where d is a diameter of magnetic dipole. As of the case of N turns, the equation should be multiplied by the factor denoted as N2 (due to the radiation power density being proportional to the quadrate of the amplitude of a frame’s field, i.e. quadrate of the number of the turns in the frame). Let us make the following conclusion.
Using our parameters such as frequency with the value of 10 kHz,i.e.wavelength of 30 000 m,coil radius being about 2m,winding length being of 10km,and number of the turns being of 800,we will get the radiation resistance with the value of 0.04 micro ohms. The latter is insignificantly small in comparison to the losses on the active resistance of a system, which comprises at least 1 ohm. However, except of tangential constituent of the current in such resonator, there is also axial component (resulting vertical current) because of which the Tower provides radiation of the short electrical dipole for which the radiation resistance is interrelated with the length of dipole denoted as L and wavelength denoted as λ as follows:
(equation 8.81a can be found by checking the link indicated above)
The latter results in the value of about 0.0008 ohm in terms of our parameters and tower’s height being about 30m, which is also insignificantly small in comparison to the losses on the active resistance of a system. As a result, we can see that both types of radiation emitted from tangential as well as axial constituents of the current are insignificantly small with regard to the losses in active resistances of the Tower’s helix considering that those are upper assessments (as for them, the current value is considered to be constant along all coil turns while in reality the current falls on the sine and there is current node or so-called current zero located at the “hot end” of the coil and real radiation value will be smaller by many times than that of the upper assessments). So any kind of ideas of the Tower operating as an antenna is absurd (at least, while we adhere the Tesla’s patents and do not exhibit any personal speculations). The Tower cannot be considered as antenna in its classical understanding. Its radiation, that is, EM-field in the distant wave zone is insignificantly small and the tower can serve only as effective accumulator for charge, which is being brought in and out the ground by the generator at its working frequency. Therefore, “genial” objections like “you will get conventional helical antenna with very low power transmission efficiency value” as well as any other “objections” based on radiation of such a structure only demonstrate total misunderstanding of the basic principles of radio physics by the opponent.
Now let us proceed with the Earth
To make it simple, let us start from simple analogies and then proceed with the final concept. Let us assume that we have electrically long conductor with the break in one tail and grounded by the other tail through the ac voltage source (and by electrically long we mean that the length of the conductor is comparable to/greater than that of the wave initiated by the generator based on the generator’s frequency and wave propagation velocity being close to the light speed in vacuum):
In such long transmission line and in a case when losses within the line are very small, standing wave of the currents and voltages occurs (i.e. superposition of the incident waves from the generator and the waves reflected from the free end of the long line). Conventional electrical vibrator or classical antenna can be considered as a typical example of such lines and waves as shown in the Figure below.
It is very easy to understand the functionality of standing waves in the long transmission line. Let us assume that conductor is divided into the segments with the length being half-size of that of the wave. Each of such segments is considered as a capacity (as conductor has a capacity distributed along) and as an inductivity (in an analogous manner). Hence, standing waves are nothing else but current waves charging/discharging such the capacities. That is, energy in such standing wave is saved as a charge and current in an interchangeable manner. Such a charge is either allocated along the conductor (along the sine wave) with the current values being equal to zero or in the form of the currents redistributed along the conductor (along the sine wave, correspondingly). At this moment, surface charge density along the conductor is equal to zero. The latter just resembles the working pattern of conventional LC-chain (induced coil sequentially connected with the condenser capacity) but with regard to distributed manner of capacity and inductivity. The currents in half-wave are «drawn» to the center of such selected segment creating voltage loop i.e. occurrence of surface charge in the conductor. As of the neighboring segment, such currents are «drawn away» from similar center creating a charge of opposite sign. This process is repeated further to the opposite side whilst creating the charges of opposite sign at the surface of a conductor. It is obvious that all aforesaid implies ideal transmission line without losses and being open-ended at the tail. More complex processes are happening in real transmission line with the losses and/or line with the load at the tail. However, it does not affect principal essence of the subject in question.
As of elementary mechanical parities, the closest process will be one with the dilatational waves in the long spring, which do occur in a case when such spring laying at the support with zero friction is swayed back and forth along the axis of spring located in one end of the spring with the other end being fastened. At that, movement velocity of the respective part of a spring corresponds to the current value, and an extent of spring compression depends on the voltage value. Thus, all parts of a spring will acquire zero velocity at some point while extent of spring compression will vary on sine and along spring so it may resemble some kind of alternative nodes and discharges. The latter is determined by zero current in standing wave and maximum voltage value simultaneously (i.e. maximum value of surface charge density in the conductor). It is also possible that whole spring will not be deformed over quarter of period of time, however actual velocity of its parts will vary on sinus along axis of a spring at the moment (the moment of zero charge density but with a maximum current value along the long line conductor correspond to that).
In general, losses in such transmission line can be divided in two constituents: ohmic losses and losses by radiation. In a case of conductor having great length and small ohmic resistance, radiation will significantly affect the losses (i.e. radiation resistance). It is well know that if such a line will be surrounded by grounded conductive screen then losses by radiation will be neutralized. Such structure is called as coaxial waveguide. It is noteworthy that in our example, wave in such coaxial waveguide will exist in a form of ТЕМ-mode (generator connected via ground to the internal and external conductors of a waveguide will serve as an excitation port).
Actually, state of ТЕМ mode can be considered as a state of inductive connection of internal and external conductors of waveguide via induction field in these conductors (current change in the internal core evokes EMF in the external screen. At that, induced current in the external screen directed against the current change in the internal core, i.e. it is actually conventional induction in the near field of a current). Therefore, cross flows of energy are not only of a zero value for both ТЕ and ТМ mode over time in average, but they are also of a zero value at any moment of time. Re-reflection from the boundaries of waveguide does not take place. In this case, energy flow has dilatational nature, that is, directed along the axis, and correspondingly Poynting’s vector is directed also in strictly parallel direction of wave propagation along the axis of such coaxial resonator.
Therefore, state of ТЕМ mode in coaxial waveguide is characterized by fine parameters concerning states of ТЕ and ТМ mode, in particular with regard to energy transmission and small value of wave attenuation coefficient in waveguide. Therefore, it is quite common to use state of TEM-mode when it is necessary to transmit energy via coaxial waveguide. However, even in case of removal of grounding of the external screen of such waveguide, the screen is still finely capable of operating along entire length except of his end parts.
This is due the fact that such screen represents transmission line anyway, where EMF of alternating current in internal conductor-core is used as a generator. And some kind of voltage loop will exist only in the end parts of such screen due to small value of capacity of these ends. The rest part of screen will be fully functional. The latter can be proven by means of elementary modeling in Ansoft HFSS software for example. The next question is what is going to happen if we will not remove grounding of external screen but will “close” the ends like it is demonstrated in Figure below (in this case, external screen will resemble some sort of “capsule”). The answer is quite clear – this situation will be absolutely similar to that described above. Screen will operate on its entire length but the endings of such “capsule” will gather voltage loops as well as current nodes.
Even if internal and external conductors can be designed as the spheres, we will end up with the general model of suggested experiment (proportions in Figure below were not adhered):
It is easy to guess that internal conductive sphere is the Earth while upper layers of atmosphere (mainly ionosphere) represent internal conductive sphere. And general geometry of such resonator is just conventional concentric spherical resonator in which only ТЕ and ТМ mode exist so we can’t talk only of TEM mode. However, such resonator has quite unconventional way of excitation of theТМ-mode (that is, excitation port does not connect external and internal plates like it is accomplished in «classical» electrical engineering). Due to variable section of internal and external conductors, amplitudes of standing waves of the currents and voltages will decrease with distance from the generator. In this case, general essence of this situation remains similar– ТЕM mode of coaxial or ТМ-mode of spherical resonator is excited by corresponding source (Tesla Tower).
First, this kind of idea seems strange – it is well known that conductivity of the Earth ground as well as that of ionosphere in clear day on the illuminated side is about 0.001 Cm/m (±period) while conductivity of copper is 58 000 000 Cm/m. However, let consider this issue based on computational assessments and not on intuitive reflections. Let us figure out the issue with the resistance of the Earth ground. We assume that from the viewpoint of current flow processes, division to dielectrics, semiconductors and conductors is quite conditional on its nature as dielectric becomes comparably good conductor at its great section (that is, dielectric has small total resistance value while has small conductivity also). It is well known that at sufficient thickness of conductor, current has substantial value only at some depth called as depth of skin-layer, which is calculated according to the next equation:
where — electrical resistance, — relative magnetic conductivity, — frequency.
Obviously, this is a simplified equation, which can be used for the conductor but not for dielectric. However, the losses related to permittivity of the grounds are very small at our ultra low frequencies. Therefore, this equation can be used for performing an assessment. As of the frequency range of 1-10 kHz and range of conductivities being of 0.001-0.00001 Cm/m, the depth of skin-layer lies within a range varying from hundred of meters up to several kilometers. At that, the lower will be the frequency the greater will be the depth of skin-layer, that is, the smaller will be ohmic losses in planetary resonance (inversely proportional to the root from frequency). Thus, we can conclude that it is necessary to confine ourselves to the kilometer long layer considering active resistance of the Earth as a ball made of ground, that is, material with conductivity being at the level of 0.01-0.0001 Cm/m) and assuming that frequency range is not lower than 1 kHz (due to the fact that frequency with smaller values cannot be created from practical viewpoint based upon required technical parameters of the Tesla Tower). Let us notice that obviously Tesla sincerely assumed that currents from his tower are directed inside of the Earth and not to its surface as it is indicated in our scientific article. According conventional electrodynamics, this is wrong assumption.
Resistance between two bars absorbed into medium with bad conductivity such as ground is defined by the following equation:
L – length of the bars, D – distance between them, r1 – section radius of the bars, — electric conductivity of the medium.
It is noteworthy that based on this equation and starting from the distance between the bars, which exceeds the length of the bars, resistance between bars actually becomes constant (stops to increase as the distance grows). For instance, typical resistance will be in a range of 1-3 ohm for two bars with the length of 30m and diameter of 0.2m as well as ground conductivity being about 0.04 Cm/m (which is correct for the upper layers of ground) starting from a distance of several meters and so forth (without restriction of remoteness of a distance) and at subsequent increase between bars. Thus, it is intuitive delusion that the Earth is bad conductor (as an object in general). In opposite case grounding wouldn’t make any sense – while it is used everywhere. Peculiar feature of such equation is the fact that starting from some length of the bars further increase of the bar’s length does not result in noticeable decrease of resistance between bars. In other words, cumulative resistance between receiver and transmitter insignificantly depends on the depth of skin-layer. The latter is well-known fact in terms of grounding systems:
Thus, we have to be optimistic in relation to resistance of entire surface of the Earth. Let us perform an assessment in a more precise manner. Attenuation constant defining losses on the walls of the waveguide due to active resistance for ТЕМ-mode of coaxial waveguide
(to which the biggest central part of the Earth-resonator is most closely located as shown in Figure above) is calculated according to the following equation (see for example here or here – eq. 10.4.8):
where Rs1 and Rs2 are surface resistances of metal of internal and external cylinders of the waveguide, which can be calculated according to the following equation:
Here µ is permeability (for the most parts of superficial ground it is just magnetic constant). Let us notice that there is ratio of frequency and conductivity located under root, that is, conductivity which is smallest on its value compared to that of the metals is mostly compensated by kHz-frequency range (while coaxial waveguides are used for GHz-frequency range). The fact of their ratio being located under root sign “improves” situation even more. Thus, we receive variable with the value of 1.06 ohm for our parameters such as f=3 kHz and σ=0.01 Cm/m which is typical value of surface resistance of both The Earth and ionosphere with the 1ohm-period±period.
1ohm seems to be still quite large number. However, cavity Q factor is proportional to its linear dimensions due to the fact that energy amount in resonator is proportional to its volume and losses are proportional to the area of the resonator’s walls. The latter is reflected in the equation, in numerator. In our case, radiuses D and d have great value (D=6 600 000m, d = 6 400 000m), which completely exceeds relatively great value of surface conductivity of the walls of the waveguide. Therefore, attenuation constant for our parameters can be assessed using the equations indicated above as having value of 10-8-10-9 1/m.
In reality, the biggest part of the planet surface is covered by the fine electrolyte (salty oceanic water), i.e. given evaluation is upper bound while real attenuation constant will be lower. Attenuation constant equal to 10-9 means that wave amplitude will decrease by 1-e–x10^(-9)=2% along all the length of way «x» of wave from opposite point of globe being about 20000km. Extremely high Q-factor of resonator Earth-Ionosphere corresponds to that phenomenon described above (its value is much greater than one hundred) for such mode in comparison to mechanism of distribution of conventional radio waves via re-reflection from Earth-Ionosphere borders. And even worsening of assessed conductivity by 10-100 times (which is sensible in terms of ionosphere) does not result in fatal consequences in terms of the fact that such resonance might exist.
We came to conclusion that, in principle, sought resonance can take a place based on physical parameters of a resonator, however real Q-factor of such resonance can have plug by 10-100 times (but even at the worst combination of parameters its value shouldn’t be lower than one hundred). Similar assessment of possible high Q-factor of ТМ-modes in the resonator Earth-Ionosphere was demonstrated in Davidovich work and it was referred as “modes of multilayered concentric spherical resonator”. As of rather strict approach, it is necessary to consider normal concentric resonator in ТМ-mode state (for instance, decent review on this question can be found at here, otherwise individuals interest in more deep theoretical aspects can check this or this works).
First harmonics of zero ТМ-mode correspond to the phenomenon of so-called Shuman resonance. However, speaking of frequencies with the value range being within few kHz, except of zero mode the following ones will be subjected to excitation (for 10 кHz these are mode numbers within range of 0-6). Hence, as it can be seen from equation
for the first mode – the lowest harmonic will have frequency with the value of about 1.5 kHz, and for the second mode this value will be 3 kHz etc. At that, as it can be seen from the equation defining harmonic frequencies for each of such modes starting from the first one and so forth, “density” of harmonics location along frequency axis is quite big (for instance, if harmonics come with an interval of about 10Hz for zero mode then for the rest of modes within frequency range being below 10kHz this value will be with an interval of about 0.01-0.1Hz). Therefore, it is impossible to talk about any concrete mode/harmonic while performing excitation of ТМ-modes of such resonator at the frequency range being of few kHz: final situation with standing waves will correspond to exceedingly large amount of harmonics for several modes at once. The latter serves as a principal difference of such resonance from Shuman’s one.
There is also another principal difference. It is well known that (see here – p. 8) for passive resonator, Q-factor of harmonics increases with frequency growth in a manner, which is approximately proportional to its root. However, resonator Earth-Ionosphere is not passive on its nature. In reality, electrical machine of the Earth keeps approximately constant voltage difference between the plates of planetary condenser (ground-atmosphere). In case of strike of lighting, given voltage decreases, however its value returns to normal during definite period of time measured in seconds. At that, typical charging current density comprises about 0.1-1A per square kilometer. In other words, the Earth operates as EDS source, which slowly stabilizes voltage difference at some kind of average level. Obviously in case of ultra-low frequency oscillations corresponding to the Shuman’s resonance (first harmonics of zero ТМ-mode of resonator), presence of such EDS source results in significant worsening of Q-factor of resonance. In case of voltage potential fluctuation from average level, this EDS source aims at compensating of the fluctuation. The latter implies active suppression of ТМ-mode which can have significant effect taking into consideration planetary scale of this phenomenon. Unfortunately, this factor is not considered in any of known models of TM-mode resonance in Earth-Ionosphere resonator. The reasons for that are quite understandable – there is no any definite model of mechanism of occurrence of such EDS source as well as this mechanism is significantly non-linear in terms of any kind of phenomenon related to atmospheric electricity. Therefore, any kind of adequate modeling (consideration) of such factor for ТМ-modes of resonator is not possible due to lack of the data. Nevertheless, the data are known concerning Q-factor of the first harmonics of zeroТМ-mode of the resonator Earth-ionosphere (these data were collected in 2011):
|Harmonic frequency f, Hz||7.8||14.3||20.8||27.3||33.8|
|Simple extrapolation from the first harmonic (for the passive resonator Q-factor value is proportional to the radical from the frequency value)||4.7||5.7||6.5||7.3|
As it can be seen from this table, actual Q-factor value increases quickly with the subsequent increase of a number of the harmonics compared to the radical from the frequency value (i.e. it increases faster than for passive resonator). This mechanism is going to have the greatest influence taking into consideration relative “slowness” of charging mechanism of planetary condenser exactly for the lowest zero mode harmonics due to the fact that Q-factor value of resonance will increase with quite great speed along with subsequent increase of the frequency value. It is noteworthy that in 2011 (the latter is reflected in the link provided above), the currents were discovered in the ionosphere, which were corresponding to Shuman’s resonance at the altitude of 400-800 km for which all prior models were not providing any kind of the currents at all. In fact, existing models of ionosphere conductivity appeared to be improper and useless in terms of elaboration of models of resonance of ТМ-mode in the resonator Earth-Ionosphere. Thus, there are grounds existing for conducting direct measurements of Q-factor value of total resonance at the frequencies with the value being of only few kHz. This can be accomplished because of theoretical references and actual results obtained by Tesla. Direct analytical or computational calculation is impossible to perform due to complex nature of not so well known object Earth with great amount of own parameters/features.
Actually, suggested experimental concept is neither related to Shuman’s resonance (and other Q-factors as well as additional ТМ-modes and resonance harmonics) nor to energy transmission via radio waves of EM-field of distance wave zone of conventional radiation units. And Tesla was directly stating that. Like it was said above, as resonator’s section is not constant then wave impedance (defining voltage ratio to the current in the line) will vary: maximum voltage will take a place in the loops located in direct proximity to the tower (and from opposite end of the planet), minimum at the “equator” of the Tower. The latter can be confirmed by computational calculations performed by means of Ansoft HFSS software and using corresponding analytical equations like, for instance, for zeroТМ-mode of such resonator:
Distribution of the amplitudes of electrical field E and magnetic field B for the first 3 harmonics of zero ТМ-mode of resonator Earth-Ionosphere, the Figure was taken here. As is known in theoretical physics, there is so-called Sommerfeld integral, defining the distribution of EM-field over the surface of the medium with finite conductivity (in the case of an arbitrary location of the radiation source on the boundary between two media). We could try to use this expression to create the analytic theory of how Tesla Tower works. Indeed, the tower itself can be seen as a set of EM-sources distributed along the height of the Tower, and then using the Sommerfeld integral, we may try directly derive an analytical expression for the wave of current-voltage induced in the ground by the Tesla Tower. Alas, although itself Sommerfeld integral has been known about 100 years, for all these 100 years, despite the efforts of prominent theorists in the field of physics and mathematics, no one was able to find an analytical solution for the Sommerfeld integral. It would be naive to believe that we are able to solve this theoretical problem which was not solved by the best minds of the world over 100 years… Thus, all that remains for us – is to be satisfied with the numerical calculation only, which we did – using Ansoft HFSS (as discussed below). It is noticeable that accordingly Sommerfeld integral, a so-called surface wave (or ground wave) may be generated in case of dipole source placed on the boundary between ground and air. In general Tesla tower is similar to that source. So accordingly Maxwell equations surface wave has to exist at least at short distance (several wavelengths) near the tower. Numerical calculation on HFSS software do confirms that such surface wave can be easily generated by Tesla tower as it is shown at the picture below (Earth is placed in infinite space and has no atmosphere in this calculation – so there is no reflection from ionosphere, nevertheless surface wave still exists; Tower is placed near the right bottom corner).
“Grounding” for the resonator Earth-Ionosphere
The question is where from we are going to get “grounding” to which generator for pumping such resonator is connected as it is shown in the figure below?
The answer is simple as we have already examined working principle of the Tesla Tower. From the viewpoint of generator, Tesla Tower is not any different from some kind of external ground (connected via active resistance of the Tower). This is due to the fact that generator “sees” only active resistance of the Tower but does not react anyhow at the charge value, which is accumulated in the tower. This is because of capacitive and inductive resistance in the resonance mode compensate each other. In other words, for generator the Tower is some sort of “grounding” via resistance which is equal to active resistance of the Tower. As it was noticed above, such charge evokes distribution of the charges in ground located in direct proximity next to the Tower. However, the higher charge integrator of the Tower is elevated the less important is that factor as capacity Earth-Ground is decreasing. It is enough to elevate charge integrator to the height which is significantly higher that the size of integrator so that the Tesla Tower would really start to serve as “external ground” for the reference generator (i.e. it is enough to minimize the capacity between the Tower and Earth so that own isolated capacity value of the Tower would become at least somewhat equal to that of the capacity Tower-Earth).
Energy transmission efficiency coefficient
Upon establishment of the standing waves of the voltages and currents over all the planet (at that, currents will have quite small amplitude in comparison to the voltages) it is possible to conduct efficient removal of this energy by the analogous system (the same Tower but without generator). Physical process taking place during the work of a receiver are characterized by the establishment of the connection between Tower-Receiver resonance circuit. The latter allows obtaining quite high transmission efficiency coefficient even at the low coupling coefficient of the source and receiver strictly in correspondence with conventional electrical engineering. Let us proceed with analysis of this issue in more detailed manner. In a case of receiver, i.e. similar circuit being located in voltage loop and the current node of the final standing wave, alternating potential of the surface will serve as EDS for receiver. At that, there will happen resonance excitation in the receiver in completely similar manner as that in the source. Correspondingly, receiver will generate ground wave in a manner similar to that of the source. In addition, as receiver is located in voltage loop and the current node, the generated wave will create additional load to the source and, thus, form the system in a shape of so-called resonance coupled circuits (quick review on this question can be found here and here). In fact, receiver has voltage node in voltage and current loops of external wave as well as operated at the same frequency, that is, in a field of location of the source where the receiver will create voltage loop and current node and which the source will “see” as additional load. It can be very well observed in the video, which illustrated basics of computational modeling by means of Ansoft HFSS software.
The source is located in the left upper field in the video and in the Figure above, location field of the receiver is selected in the right near-to-central part. It can be seen that the minimum value of a field in a field of the receiver is constant. The latter indicated efficient removal of the energy from the planetary resonance. Interference image of the waves emitted by the receiver and source is also very clearly visible. For such kind of systems, that is, resonant coupled circuits, energy transmission efficiency coefficient is determined by multiplication of system coupling coefficient k and its Q-factor. Coupling coefficient defines what part of energy of circuit-source resonance is «seen» by the circuit-receiver. For instance, coupling coefficient is reaching 1 for the closely located inductive coils (especially if they are spooled on same iron) and subsequently decreases as coils get separated due to the EDC decrease. Typical graph of efficiency factor’s dependency η from intersection of the coupling coefficient k to Q-factor is provided below:
Physical meaning of such dependency is obvious – even in case when receiver “takes” only small percent of source energy during one oscillation period, energy transmission efficiency factor determining relation of transmitted and dissipated energies will have great value due to the energy losses being small in total resonance during same period of time because of high Q-factor of resonance. That is, high circuit coupling coefficient is not required for achieving high energy transmission efficiency coefficient value. This is because Q-factor with great value can compensate small value of the coupling coefficient. Let us assess coupling coefficient between source and receiver and, supposedly, Q-factor of resonator Earth-ionosphere with high value (we have all needed grounds for this assumption based on the facts discussed above). Let the frequency have a value of 10kHz. It means that the Earth is divided to «rings» with the width being of 30km from which around 700 is accounted for the length of half of perimeter. The capacity of the Earth as isolated conductor has a value of about 700 μF. Let the current in the Tower (source) have a value of 1kA, which corresponds to the power of generator being at least few MW. As of the long transmission line – the Earth, our «rings» serve as parallel capacities. That is, capacity per one wavelength within the «Equator» next to the Tower can have a value of 1 μF (700μF/700 waves). The latter provides the voltage with the value of 15kV according to the standard equation such as: U=I*Rc=I/(c1*w) and at the current value being of 1kA (directed for charging of such capacities. Entire field for TM-mode is concentrated on the length which is equal to the half of wave that is vertical to the ground as it can be seen from computational modeling performed by means of HFSS (and/or corresponding analytical equations links to which were provided above). For 10 kHz it is 15km.
Field gradient has a value of only one volt pet meter (at the background gradient of vertical constituent of the field being around 100 volts per meter). Such value is maintained in the «Equator» and what comes to the loops located closely to the Tower the capacity value will be by 1 or even 2 times greater. That is, the Tower-receiver will «notice» voltage value of 100kV (and in such case field gradient will have value of 10V/m) in case when located at the distance of dozens of kilometers from the source. In this situation, alternating potential of the ground has very big value and field gradient value is so small due to field being distributed vertically along the great distance of dozens of kilometers. The latter allows speaking of even greater power values of a receiver in order do not get away from the gradient level of field located next to the Earth. In case of the «Equator» and at indicated parameters and total resonance voltage in source having MV value and in the equator having that of 10kV, coupling coefficient will be of 1%, correspondingly (and dozens of % at the distance of dozens of kilometers from source). This is because of coupling coefficient can be defined as ratio of voltages at the receiver’s inductivity at opened circuit of a receiver to the working source given the same parameters of receiver and source. Based on probable Q-factor of resonance being with the value of few hundreds, such coupling coefficient implies energy transmission efficiency ratio being with the value of at least dozens of % for the equator and even can be with a value of above 90% for the distance accounting dozens of kilometers. The latter completely corroborates with the statements made by Tesla after conduction of corresponding experiments. So, in general, it is possible to expect that two Tesla towers (transmitter and receiver) forms capacitive coupled resonant circuits, with capacitive coupling caused by surface waves (in case of short distance between towers, up to several hundreds of kilometers) or waves in Earth-Ionosphere waveguide (for long distance between towers) generated by both towers.
Lumped-circuit scheme of resonant coupling of Tesla Tower (transmitter and receiver).
However, due to problematic issues related to computational modeling and calculations of actual Q-factor of resonance it is not reasonable to attempt to make more precise evaluation (actually all depends on actual Q-factor of the resonator-Earth and resonator-Tower since modeling can result in significant errors). So the only adequate way of conducting assessment would be elaboration and carrying out full scale experiment. Obviously, for that purpose it is necessary to design full analogue of the Tesla tower. The latter will allow real representation of the actual «Tesla Tower» and conduction of actual «correct experiment» and subsequent clarification of issue concerning energy transmission efficiency coefficient in terms of energy transmission over the long distances. At the same time, we have no doubts that the energy transmission efficiency coefficient will have a great value for experimental setup similar to original parameters (taking place in the Tesla’s experiments, i.e. in terms of distances ranging at least within hundreds of kilometers). The latter is interesting from practical viewpoint in any case.
In addition to the patents related to the Tower, Tesla also patented device for location of standing waves of voltages in the ground occurring as a result of lighting strike. This device is described in patent US787412. The main working principle of given detector is based on ensuring the operating process of so-called synchronous detector or lock-in amplifier). Some Wikipedia statements are provided below (and are wrong): “The lock-in amplifier is commonly believed to be invented by Princeton University physicist Robert H. Dicke who founded the company Princeton Applied Research (PAR) to market the product. However, in an interview with Martin Harwit, Dicke claims that even though he is often credited with the invention of the device, he believes he read about it in a review of scientific equipment written by Walter C Michels, a professor at Bryn Mawr College. This was probably a 1941 paper by Michels and Curtis, which in turn cites a 1934 paper by C. R. Cosens.”
It is obvious that Tesla’s fellows did not sufficiently research other Tesla’s ideas and patents on which he objectively had priorities. However, more thorough analysis of device detecting standing waves and used by Tesla does not leave any doubts in the fact that invention of synchronous detector has been done by Tesla around 1900 year (not by Robert H. Dicke several dozens of years later). In fact, Tesla used such device for the purpose of sequential closure of one of the contact of condenser-accumulator with the ground while other contact was “in the air” at the given frequency and pulse ratio (see patent) by means of purely mechanical approach using sliding contacts in corresponding cylinder denoted as F in the Figure below.
Thus, given the condition of closing frequency coalescence of standing wave in the ground and closing frequency of contacts in receiver, condenser Т was gradually accumulating the charge and then involuntary was discharged via receiver R allowing registration of discharging current of such accumulating condenser. The latter reflects typical logics of lock-in amplifier. At that, as the length of cables connecting condenser with ground was much smaller than wavelength it is not wise to talk of EM-crosstalks for such cables (from lighting strikes) – they are going to be too small. Here is something Tesla was writing about this and that is where from his path took a start in this field:
The date I shall never forget — when I obtained the first decisive experimental evidence of a truth of overwhelming importance for the advancement of humanity. A dense mass of strongly charged clouds gathered in the west and towards the evening a violent storm broke loose which, after spending its fury in the mountains, was driven away with great velocity over the plains. Heavy and long persisting arcs formed almost in regular time intervals. My observations were now greatly facilitated and rendered more accurate by the experiences already gained. I was able to handle my instruments quickly and I was prepared. The recording apparatus being properly adjusted, its indications became fainter and fainter with the increasing distance of the storm until they ceased altogether. I was watching in eager expectation. Surely enough, in a little while the indications again began, grew stronger and stronger and, after passing thru a maximum, gradually decreased and ceased once more. Many times, in regularly recurring intervals, the same actions were repeated until the storm, which, as evident from simple computations, was moving with nearly constant speed, had retreated to a distance of about three hundred kilometres. Not did these strange actions stop then, but continued to manifest themselves with undiminished force. Subsequently, similar observations were also made by my assistant, Mr. Fritz Lowenstein, and shortly afterwards several admirable opportunities presented themselves which brought out still more forcibly and unmistakably, the true nature of the wonderful phenomenon. No doubt whatever remained: I was observing stationary waves.
Based upon actual detector’s design there are no any doubts in the following fact that evidence of operating process of such detector, and in particular, periodical sinusoidal change of amplitude of energetic of the process itself along progress and recession of storm to the hundreds of miles and being registered by the detector definitely implied the fact of presence of standing voltage waves in the ground of Earth. The latter induced Tesla to commencing of his research. Based on all information provided above we can assume that there are all necessary grounds for conduction of full scale experiment for the purpose of final confirmation of the important use of the Tesla Tower.”