“April 14, 1865, Lewis Powell arrived at Secretary of State William Seward’s home. Seward was recuperating from a carriage accident and Powell claimed he had a delivery of medicine. Seward’s son Frederick denied Powell entrance into his father’s bedroom, but Powell was determined to finish his mission and beat Frederick Seward severely, entering William Seward’s bedroom and slashing his throat twice. Seward’s son Augustus struggled with Powell but he broke free and escaped from the house, where David Herold was waiting with their horses.”

“On the evening of the 14th, Booth had called at the Kirkwood House, where Vice-President Johnson was stopping, and left a card on which was written: “Don’t wish to disturb you. Are you at home? J. Wilkes Booth.”


“A sampling of expulsions of Jesuits from various nations (listed chronologically according to the 1st year of expulsion by various nations: in some cases the monarch who ordered the expulsion is listed):

1579, 1581, 1586, and 1602 – Elizabeth I, Queen of England
1604 – James I, King of England [This was the 5th expulsion of the Jesuits from England!]
1614 – Japan
1618 – the Kingdom of Bohemia
1716, 1783 – China
1719 – Peter the Great of Russia
1759 – King Joseph I of Portugal [He believed the Jesuits attempted to assassinate him in 1758.]
1764 – King Louis XV of France
1816 – Russian Czar Alexander I [He expelled the Jesuits from Moscow and St. Petersburg.]
1820 – Russian Czar Alexander I [He expelled the Jesuits from all of Russia.]

1820, 1835, 1868 – Spain
1834 – Portugal [2nd expulsion of the Jesuits from Portugal]
1848 – Switzerland
1848, 1859 – Italy
1872 – Guatemala
1872 – German-Prussian Empire
1873 – Mexico
1874 – Brazil
1875 – Ecuador and Columbia
1880, 1901 – France [2nd and 3rd expulsions of the Jesuits from France]
1884 – Costa Rica
1901 – Portugal [3rd expulsion of the Jesuits from Portugal]

Jesuits assassinating Henry IV
“This is the moment a drifter by the name of François Ravaillac seizes to strike. Then a group of armed men appear out of nowhere to kill the assassin on the spot, but one of the King’s attendants, the Baron de Courtomer, has enough presence of mind to disperse the men by telling them Henri is safe. Ravaillac can then be arrested and questioned. The man is clearly unbalanced. He sought to take orders, first with the Feuillants, then with the Jesuits, rejected by both on account of his hallucinations, which he believed to be religious visions. The investigation is suspiciously hasty: only 13 days between the crime and the execution of the assassin! Ravaillac himself insists under torture that he has no accomplices, but when he is drawn and quartered on the 27th of May, he exclaims “I was deceived when they persuaded me that my deed would be well received by the people.” 

NOTE: The Jesuits were expelled from England five times! The Jesuits were also expelled three times from predominantly Roman Catholic Spain, three times from predominantly Roman Catholic Portugal, and three times from predominantly Roman Catholic France! The Jesuits were also expelled numerous times from various predominantly Roman Catholic countries in South and Central America. Why were the Jesuits expelled so many times from so many nations of the world? Let us here repeat a quotation by Canadian author and historian J.E.C. Shepherd that was given earlier in this newsletter – a quotation that provides us with the answer:  “Between 1555 and 1931 the Society of Jesus [Ed.: i.e., the Jesuit Order] was expelled from at least 83 countries, city-states and cities, for engaging in political intrigue and subversive plots against the welfare of the State, according to the records of a Jesuit priest of repute [Ed.: i.e., Thomas J. Campbell]. Practically every instance of expulsion was for political intrigue, political infiltration, political subversion, and inciting to political insurrection. – J.E.C. Shepherd (“The Babington Plot”; 1987; Wittenburg Publications, Toronto, Canada; Page 12)

“Regarding the conspirators who killed Abraham Lincoln, United States General Baker stated for the record: “I mention, as an exceptional and remarkable fact, that every conspirator, in custody, is by education a Catholic.”

Lincoln’s assassins unhooded / May 2, 2013

“For those unfamiliar with these facts, be sure to visit the article at this link. Keep in mind that you can secure photo books by the Civil War photographer, Matthew Brady, that show photos of these facts.  One interesting and pivotal point in the history of Lincoln’s assassination is when John Wilkes Booth visited a Catholic church in Bryantown and was introduced to Dr. Samuel Mudd in November 1864 as you can read in another article at this link.  Another interesting detail is how the Catholic Church helped arch-conspirator John Surratt to escape the manhunt for Lincoln’s assassins as you can read in the article at this link. You can also read about such facts in numerous old history books, some of which this author mentions.

Edman Spangler was employed at Ford’s Theatre. On April 14, 1865 it was his job to prepare the presidential box for the evening’s performance. While John Wilkes Booth attacked President Lincoln, Spangler attended to Booth’s horse then he later placed himself by the theatre’s back door to help aid Booth in his escape.”

Burke McCarty’s book at this link, written shortly after the tragic assassination of Lincoln, tells how the Georgetown Jesuits sat in the courtroom in Washington, D.C. during the trial, monitoring the jurors who testified for or against John Surratt.  It also tells how priests were discussing the assassination of Lincoln before it even took place. Furthermore, C.T. Wilcox was able to obtain documents from that era of history, and you can hear about how he secured the historical evidence in the video interview at this link and you can also read his website at this link and order his eye-opening book, available on his website or go to for a copy at this link, although it’s not always in stock.

His book describes the full details of how the American republic was targeted by the Vatican and has been slowly transformed over the past century into the failing republic that she is today. A sample chapter including photos is available of his book at this link.  A PDF copy of one of his books, which is missing all the photos but still has some of the text, is also available at this link.  In an article on the website of popular talk show host , C.T. Wilcox is stated as saying: “In 1822 the Roman Catholic Monarchies of Europe conspired with the Vatican to destroy the concept of popular government, as found in the experiment of the United States, by means of infiltration, subversion and corruption,”
While pretending to partner with America, is not the European Union benefiting from the demise of the United States as we write these very words?

As America continues to play the war machine for the Old World Order, are not these nations more and more resembling two iron feet mixed with clay planted firmly on each side of the Atlantic Ocean, reminiscent of a prophecy in the Book of Daniel chapter two? America continues to spill her solders’ blood in further imperialistic conquests, and spends all the country’s money, while her CIA, started by a Vatican Knight with Catholic Nazi scientists and intelligence officers, incurs the wrath of the world by toppling governments, rigging elections, and assassinating world leaders as her quest for world domination continues.

Meanwhile, the Pope wags the naughty finger at America and talks of peace and denies her multiple and massive connections to all the blood-letting, and still meets secretly with the President of the United States and encourages America to self-destruct by suggesting to the U.S. President that socialism be exalted, guns be controlled and that a world leader is needed.  Can all we all guess who the Pope might have in mind for this global world leader he thinks is needed?

Another very thought-provoking article at this link shares a good deal of history on this issue and states: “Not long after Lincoln’s assassination, the U.S. Government broke off diplomatic relations with the Vatican on 30th June 1867 … Lincoln’s assassination was found by the Tribunal to have been perpetrated by eight Catholics, several of whom were held by the Tribunal to have been under the influence of the Jesuits and one of whom (John Surratt) was found to have been working for months in Rome as a Zouave (a personal bodyguard in the paid service of the Pope) “under the false name of John Watson.”

Charles Chiniquy: “My dear President, I must repeat to you here what I said in 1856. My fear is that you will fall under the blows of a Jesuit assassin if you do not pay more attention than you have done, till now, to protect yourself…”

Abraham Lincoln:You are not the first to warn me against the dangers of assassination. My ambassadors in Italy, France, and England, as well as Professor Morse, have many times warned me against the plots of the murderers, which they have detected in those different countries. But I see no other safeguard against those murderers but to be always ready to die…”

“As German Cardinal Walter Kasper said in a speech on Pope Francis at The Catholic University of America, “[Francis] does not represent a liberal position, but a radical position, understood in the original sense of the word, as going back to the roots, the radix.”

Samuel F.B. Morse, inventor of the telegraph (which made possible the internet): “And do Americans need to be told what JESUITS are? If any are ignorant, let them inform themselves of their history without delay; no time is to be lost; their workings are before you in every day’s events; they are a SECRET SOCIETY, a sort of Masonic order with super added features of revolting odiousness, and a THOUSAND TIMES MORE DANGEROUS.”

“Ronald Reagan was the President who restored diplomatic ties with Rome under the disguise of a being a “Protestant” and under guise of being a popular, conservative President who nobody would suspect. Reagan’s parents are buried in a Catholic cemetery today.”

“It has been told to us, coming from what we believe to be true authority, that Booth, about three weeks before he committed the crime, was admitted to the Roman Catholic Church, and privately received the sacraments from no less a personage than Archbishop Spaulding himself, which he did to silence any conscientious scruples that he might have in taking Abraham Lincoln’s life…”

“Passage Through Baltimore”
: President-elect Lincoln depicted ignominiously hiding in a cattle car by Adalbert J. Volck, 1863

“…and it was but a short time after that Archbishop Spaulding received a donation of funds for the specific purpose which was to uniform and equip a military body in the same manner and style as the Papal Guard at Rome. The uniforms, muskets, cartridge boxes and belts all bearing the Papal coat of arms and consecrated by the pope himself, were sent to Archbishop Spaulding at Baltimore… The entire diocese… was rebel to the core and fierce in its hatred of Lincoln.” – Edwin A. Sherman, “Engineer Corps of Hell”, page 213

John Surratt was scurried out of the United States with the help of Catholic priests in Canada, from where he fled to Italy. He is shown here in uniform as a member of the Pope’s bodyguard militia known as Papal Zouaves.”

Diary of John Surratt - “November 2, 1865. — Conversed with Mr. A. to-day. He says Paris will ruin me, as I have already been recognized more than once. I think ____ and the rest would like to get rid of me. They know that if I was out of the way, there would be none left to betray them. Although not the actual assassins, they had more to do with it than they would like known, especially ______, of New York. A wants me to go to Rome and join the Papal Zouaves. I could then be better protected, and money could reach me as well there as in Paris.”

Interview with Author Paul Serup / October 2013

TAEM – Author Paul Serup’s work encompasses all these qualities. As an independent author and researcher he has spent many years studying a case that has haunted America’s history since the Civil War. Paul, tell us a little about yourself and your work as a researcher.
Paul Serup- I have loved reading from an early age and am fascinated with history. As it has been said, real life is often so much more interesting than fiction. As you mentioned, I am an independent research and author, based in central British Columbia, Canada. It is very nice part of the world, but somewhat removed from important repositories of information like the Library of Congress, the National Archives, the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library etc, so doing research in the area I have, has been a challenge. I hold the record, the last time I checked, for the amount of inter-library loans at the library of the city where I live, while researching the book. There is, however, no substitute for having boots on the ground and doing research on location, although travel is expensive.

TAEM- You started your recent book, Who Killed Abraham Lincoln? while reviewing the life of Father Charles Chiniquy. Tell us about him and why you decided to look into his work.
PS- To answer your second question first, in 1986, I read Chiniquy’s autobiography, Fifty Years in the Church of Rome and I was stunned, in particular, by his assertion that the Jesuits were ultimately behind the Lincoln assassination. I became very curious about him and so I started to do research on who he was, what sort of reputation he had, and what place he had, if any, in history. That is essentially what initially motivated me and I began my research with no plans for a book or anything of the sort. Charles Chiniquy was born in the Canadian province of Quebec, into the Roman Catholic religion in 1809, the same year Abraham Lincoln was born. As a child, he learned the Bible at his mother’s side, and as he grew up, he aspired to the Catholic priesthood. Although he struggled with the instruction he received, feeling that there was major disagreement between the teachings of the Catholic Church and what the Bible and logic told him, he finished his training and was ordained a priest in 1833. Through the influence of a Protestant doctor he met while ministering at the Quebec Marine Hospital, Chiniquy became convinced of the damage that alcohol does to individuals, and society in general, and so started a temperance society. He was very successful in his efforts and by the mid-nineteenth century, he had persuaded roughly half of Quebec to give up drinking. At the time, most households in the province had a portrait of the eloquent “Apostle of Temperance”, as he was called. In 1851, he accepted the summons of Bishop Vandeveld, the second bishop of Chicago, to establish a French-Canadian Catholic settlement on the unsettled prairie of Illinois. He was again successful in doing so, but when a new bishop came to Chicago, Anthony O’Regan, Chiniquy found himself in a very public struggle with the tyrannical O’Regan. He also found himself a target of a prominent Catholic named Peter Spink, who began an unsuccessful prosecution of him, through two court terms in 1855 in Kankakee.

TAEM- He left the Catholic Church for the Protestant religion. What motivated him to do so?
PS- Although he struggled to remain a Catholic, changing the religious order he ministered in and the place where he served: the gap between what the Catholic Church preached and what it practiced, the division between the teachings of Catholic theologians and what the Bible stated, eventually caused him the leave the religion he was raised in and become a Protestant. After his tremendous colision with Chiniquy, Bishop O’Regan was summoned to Rome and removed as bishop of Chicago. The final straw for Chiniquy and the Catholic Church, was when the successor of O’Regan, Bishop Smith of Dubuque, asked for Chiniquy and the people of his colony to give a written canonical declaration of submission to him. They promised to obey the bishop in everything he asked as long as it was in accordance to the Word of God. When the bishop told Chiniquy he had to submit unconditionally, Chiniquy refused to do so.

The bishop then told Chiniquy that he could no longer be a Catholic priest and Chiniquy left the Church. Though Chiniquy was initially very alarmed at having left the Church he had been born in, he felt God show him that, like Luther, he could be saved and have a relationship with God by faith, in Jesus Christ, not by trying to keep a system of religious laws. A thousand of his fellow colonists followed him out of the Roman Catholic Church immediately and eventually most of the colony left the Church to become Protestants. Charles Chiniquy went on to become world famous as he spent the rest of his life trying to win Roman Catholics to the Protestant faith. His life was very eventful. Although he endured a number of law suits, riots, stonings, and attempts on his life at the hands of Catholics, he lived to his ninetieth year.

TAEM- Please tell our readers about his friendship with Lincoln, and how he first met him.
PS- After he had won his second battle with Peter Spink in Kankakee, he was greatly discouraged to hear that Spink had successfully petitioned for a change of venue, as it would make Chiniquy’s defense much more difficult. A stranger approached him and told him his struggle was larger than he knew. He said that the bishop of Chicago, who wanted to silence him, was really behind the prosecution. The stranger recommended that he hire Abraham Lincoln, whom he called the best lawyer and most honest man in Illinois, to defend him. Chiniquy sent a telegram to Lincoln and soon received word that Lincoln would help. He first met the future President at the beginning of the spring court session at Urbana in 1856 and they went through this court battle and another in the fall together. The fall court action in which Lincoln defended him was the most high profile libel case in the popular Springfield attorney’s career.

Big crowds came, not because Lincoln was involved but because Chiniquy was. Charles Chiniquy said he was filled with admiration for Lincoln the moment they first met. At the conclusion of the case, Lincoln said he was amazed at how Chiniquy had been persecuted and hoped that he could be counted as one of Chiniquy’s most devoted friends. Chiniquy said that Lincoln’s services were worth at least two thousand dollars but Lincoln refused to accept anything except fifty dollars, saying he had defended Chiniquy less as a lawyer than as a friend. Chiniquy visited President Lincoln three times in the White House and the last visit is actually reported in a letter, by Chiniquy, published in the Chicago Tribune in August 12th, 1864, while the 16th President remained in office. It is published in its entirety in my book. The letter is a fascinating glimpse into the Lincoln White House and into Chiniquy’s friendship with the President. Chiniquy’s great admiration for Lincoln is clearly evident. Strong evidence shows that Chiniquy was actually Abraham Lincoln’s closest friend.

Barack Obama, Cardinal Timothy Dolan and Republican candidate Mitt Romney laugh together at the Oct. 18, 2012 Al Smith Memorial Foundation Dinner [photo Mario Tama]

TAEM- Tell us of your endeavors to research his claim of the conspiracy behind the President’s assassination.
PS- I have researched Chiniquy’s assertions from Minnesota to New York, through institutions such as the Library of Congress, the National Archives, other libraries, archives, collections, cemeteries, and careful review of essentially all of the relevant documentation available, it has not been possible to find any part of the ex-priest’s book where it appears certain that he made a significant error regarding historical fact. I found newspaper articles in Minnesota that reported on the murders of Lincoln and Secretary of State Seward being spoken about, hours before they were attempted, in a solidly Roman Catholic village in the state, many miles from the nearest rail or telegraph line.

Charles Chiniquy talked about them, but I believe these articles have not be found and published before I did in my book. As you likely are aware, it was not just Lincoln who was slated for assassination. It was also the Vice-President, the Secretary of State and General Grant. The last case that Lincoln defended Chiniquy in was ended by the appearance of a young woman, Philomene Moffat, who had direct evidence that a Catholic priest who had testified against Chiniquy had committed perjury. In my research of this woman, which took me through a couple of Chicago cemeteries, I found two of her living descendants, on in the state of New York and one in Utah. They, unfortunately, had essentially no information to add.

TAEM- How many years have you worked on this, and what obstacles have you encountered.
PS- I researched and wrote on this over a period of twenty two years. Something like six or seven years into my research, I believe, I read a paper by Joseph George Jr., published in the Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society. I am not sure exactly when I first read it because, as I mentioned, I had no plan of doing anything with the research at the time so I took no note of when it happened. In any event, the paper was entitled: “The Lincoln Writings of Charles P. T. Chiniquy“, and was published in the February 1976 issue of this journal. At the time, George was the chair of the history department of Villanova University. The paper stopped me in my tracks as it directly stated, in this historical journal, that Chiniquy was wrong and not to be believed. The tone was so final, conclusive, and coming from the chair of a history department of a fairly well known university, I was disappointed to conclude that Chiniquy was therefore simply wrong. As I had traveled, gone to Chicago and other places and done some years of research, I picked up the material again, after a year or so, to go over and see exactly where Chiniquy went wrong. As I did so, I was surprised to find that when his paper was closely examined, this university professor had made numerous errors of historical fact, and reason and had misquoted Chiniquy. I found that in finality, it was Joseph George that shouldn’t be trusted, and not Charles Chiniquy. I then started my research again. The critique of George’s paper is in book.

TAEM- Do you believe that there may be an ulterior motive to his accusation.
PS- No, I do not believe so. As I mentioned, I examined Joseph George’s criticism of Chiniquy and what he wrote and found George’s negative assessment of the ex-priest to be without merit. I also examined the criticism of four others who were critics of Chiniquy. Three were academics and the other one was a Jesuit priest. Even after his death, when he can no longer defend himself, they were unable to successfully convict him of any wrong-doing. If one looks at his treatment by his contemporaries in the press such as the Chicago Tribune and the New York Times, it is very interesting. They treat him as the celebrated, world famous clergyman that he was, not as someone who personally had a axe to grind regarding the Church of Rome.

TAEM- What are your assumptions of the case’s outcome?
PS- I hope that more thinking Americans will consider what I have found and if they do, they will gain new insight into the motivation of those took part in the Lincoln assassination conspiracy and the role of the Roman Catholic Church in this famous cold case.


A sampling of leaders whom the Jesuits and their agents plotted against, and/or attempted – but failed – to assassinate – at least initially (in chronological order):

NOTE: It is important to remember, when reading this sampling of various leaders against whom the Jesuits and their agents plotted, that Jesuit-controlled Papal Rome hates (with a purple passion) civil and religious liberty – and strives to have a “monopoly” on religion in any nation where she has sufficient power and influence to force the State to make Roman Catholicism the official State religion (to the exclusion of all others)!

1571, 1583, 1586, and 1588Queen Elizabeth I of England: These years all saw failed attempts by the Jesuits to remove Queen Elizabeth I of England from her throne through Jesuit-instigated plots of assassination and/or rebellion in order to restore the pope’s “temporal power” in England. (Queen Elizabeth I was a strong Protestant ruler who opposed Jesuit efforts to place her beloved people once again under papal tyranny and despotism. Queen Elizabeth I had greatly angered the Jesuit Order by expelling the Jesuits from England in 1579.)

1582William I, Prince of Orange and Duke of Nassau: The first attempt on the life of William I, Prince of Orange was made by a Jesuit “tool” by name of John Jauregay, who was under the direction of a Jesuit who went by the name of Juan de Ysunka. On May 18, 1582 Jauregay shot a ball at point-blank range that penetrated just below William’s right ear. William I miraculously survived this attempted assassination, and Jauregay ended up getting hacked to death by a number of William’s dinner guests. (William I, Prince of Orange would two years later finally meet his end at the hand of an assassin, Balthazar Gerard [one book has “Gerhard”] – another Jesuit “tool” – who shot him with three poison-tipped bullets. William of Orange was greatly hated by the Jesuits because he had broken the pope’s “temporal power” over Holland.)

1857U.S. President James Buchanan: An attempt was made to poison President Buchanan to death on February 23, 1857 at the National Hotel in Washington, D.C. (Thirty-eight individuals died as a result of arsenic poison that was put in the sugar that was placed at the tables where President Buchanan and his supporters sat.) President Buchanan barely survived the poisoning, and did so only because he informed his doctors that arsenic had probably been used in this attempt to assassinate him. This attempt on President Buchanan’s life was the result of his refusal to make war on those southern states that were threatening to leave the Union – thus temporarily thwarting the Jesuits’ efforts to foment the American Civil War in order to split the Union. (President Buchanan was also a strong advocate of States’ rights!)

1866, 1879 and 1880Czar Alexander II: Unsuccessful attempts by Jesuit “tools” to assassinate Czar Alexander II were made in all three of these years. The Jesuits wanted Alexander II dead because he had twice broken diplomatic relations with the Papacy, and because he had supported the Union during the American Civil War of 1861-65. (Jesuit-controlled Papal Rome had supported the Confederacy.) Alexander II had sent part of the Russian fleet to U.S. shores and had placed those ships under the direct command of President Lincoln. This action kept France and England from coming in on the side of the Confederacy – and thus helped Lincoln to preserve the Union! (“Tools” of the Jesuits succeeded in assassinating Alexander II in 1881.) ”

“Execution of Mary Surratt, Lewis Powell, David Herold, and George Atzerodt on July 7, 1865, at Fort McNair

Hanging of Conspirators in Lincoln Assassination

“The assassination of United States President Abraham Lincoln took place on Good Friday, April 14, 1865, as the American Civil War was drawing to a close. The assassination occurred five days after the commanding General of the Army of Northern Virginia, Robert E. Lee, surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant and the Army of the Potomac. Lincoln was the first American president to be assassinated. The assassination was planned and carried out by the well-known stage actor John Wilkes Booth, as part of a larger conspiracy in a bid to revive the Confederate cause. Booth’s co-conspirators were Lewis Powell and David Herold, who were assigned to kill Secretary of State William H. Seward, and George Atzerodt who was to kill Vice President Andrew Johnson. By simultaneously eliminating the top three people in the administration, Booth and his co-conspirators hoped to sever the continuity of the United States government.

Lincoln was shot while watching the play Our American Cousin with his wife Mary Todd Lincoln at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C. on the night of April 14, 1865. He died early the next morning. The rest of the conspirators’ plot failed; Powell only managed to wound Seward, while Atzerodt, Johnson’s would-be assassin, lost his nerve and fled Washington. In March 1864, Ulysses S. Grant, the commanding general of all the Union’s armies, decided to suspend the exchange of prisoners-of-war. Harsh as it may have been on the prisoners of both sides, Grant realized the exchange was prolonging the war by returning soldiers to the outnumbered and manpower-starved South. John Wilkes Booth, a Southerner and outspoken Confederate sympathizer, conceived a plan to kidnap President Lincoln and deliver him to the Confederate Army, to be held hostage until the North agreed to resume exchanging prisoners. Booth recruited Samuel Arnold, George Atzerodt, David Herold, Michael O’Laughlen, Lewis Powell (also known as “Lewis Paine”), and John Surratt to help him. Surratt’s mother, Mary Surratt, left her tavern in Surrattsville, Maryland, and moved to a house in Washington D.C., where Booth became a frequent visitor.

In late 1860, Booth reportedly was initiated in the pro-Confederate Knights of the Golden Circle in Baltimore. He attended Lincoln’s second inauguration on March 4, 1865, as the invited guest of his secret fiancée Lucy Hale, daughter of John P. Hale, soon to become United States Ambassador to Spain. Booth afterwards wrote in his diary, “What an excellent chance I had, if I wished, to kill the President on Inauguration day!” Meanwhile, the Confederacy was falling apart. On April 3, Richmond, Virginia, the Confederate capital, fell to the Union army. On April 9, the Army of Northern Virginia, the main army of the Confederacy, surrendered to the Army of the Potomac at Appomatox Court House. Confederate President Jefferson Davis and the rest of his government were in full flight. Despite many Southerners giving up hope, Booth continued to believe in his cause.

On April 11, 1865, two days after Lee’s army surrendered to Grant, Booth attended a speech at the White House in which Lincoln supported the idea of enfranchising the former slaves. Furiously provoked, Booth decided on assassination. Reportedly he said: “That means n*gger citizenship. Now, by God, I’ll put him through. That is the last speech he will ever give.” On April 14, Booth’s morning started at the stroke of midnight. Lying wide awake in his bed at the National Hotel, he wrote his mother that all was well, but that he was “in haste”. In his diary, he wrote that “Our cause being almost lost, something decisive and great must be done”. At around noon, while visiting Ford’s Theatre to pick up his mail (Booth had a permanent mailbox there), Booth learned from the brother of John Ford, the owner, that the President and General Grant would be attending the theatre to see Our American Cousin that night. Booth determined that this was the perfect opportunity for him to do something “decisive”. He knew the theater’s layout, having performed there several times, as recently as the previous month.

Papal Zouave, Montreal, QC, 1868

That same afternoon, Booth went to Mary Surratt’s boarding house in Washington, D.C. and asked her to deliver a package to her tavern in Surrattsville, Maryland. He also requested Surratt to tell her tenant who resided there to have the guns and ammunition that Booth had previously stored at the tavern ready to be picked up later that evening. She complied with Booth’s requests and made the trip, along with Louis J. Weichmann, her boarder and son’s friend. This exchange, and her compliance in it, would lead directly to Surratt’s execution three months later. At seven o’clock that evening, John Wilkes Booth met for a final time with all his fellow conspirators.

Booth assigned Lewis Powell to kill Secretary of State William H. Seward at his home, George Atzerodt to kill Vice President Andrew Johnson at his residence, the Kirkwood Hotel, and David E. Herold to guide Powell to the Seward house and then out of Washington to rendezvous with Booth in Maryland. Booth planned to shoot Lincoln with his single-shot derringer and then stab Grant with a knife at Ford’s Theatre. They were all to strike simultaneously shortly after ten o’clock that night. Atzerodt wanted nothing to do with it, saying he had only signed up for a kidnapping, not a killing. Booth told him he was in too far to back out.

Within half an hour of his escape on horseback from Ford’s, Booth crossed over the Navy Yard Bridge and out of the city into Maryland. David Herold made it across the same bridge less than an hour later] and rendezvoused with Booth. After retrieving weapons and supplies previously stored at Surattsville, Herold and Booth went to Samuel A. Mudd, a local doctor who determined that Booth’s leg had been broken and put it in a splint. Later, Mudd made a pair of crutches for the assassin. After spending a day at Mudd’s house, Booth and Herold hired a local man to guide them to Samuel Cox’s house. Cox in turn took them to Thomas Jones, who hid Booth and Herold in Zekiah Swamp near his house for five days until they could cross the Potomac River. On the afternoon of April 24, they arrived at the farm of Richard H. Garrett, a tobacco farmer. Booth told Garrett he was a wounded Confederate soldier.

American Zouave ambulance crew demonstrating removal of wounded soldiers from the field, during the American Civil War.”

Booth and Herold remained at Garrett’s farm until April 26, when Union soldiers from the 16th New York Cavalry arrived at the farm. The soldiers surrounded Booth and Herold in the barn. Herold surrendered, but Booth refused to come out when the soldiers called for his surrender, stating boldly, “I will not be taken alive!” Upon hearing this, the soldiers set fire to the barn. Booth scrambled for the back door, brandishing a rifle in one hand and a pistol in the other. He never fired either weapon. A soldier named Boston Corbett crept up behind the barn and shot Booth in the neck, severing his spinal cord. Booth was carried out onto the steps of the barn. A soldier dribbled water onto his mouth. Booth told the soldier, “Tell my mother I die for my country.” In agony, unable to move his limbs, he asked a soldier to lift his hands before his face and whispered as he gazed at them, “Useless…Useless.” These were reported as his last words. Booth (allegedly) died on the porch of the Garrett farm two hours after Corbett had shot him. The rest of the conspirators were arrested before the end of the month, except for John Surratt, who fled to Quebec. There he was hidden by Roman Catholic priests.

In the turmoil that followed the assassination, scores of suspected accomplices were arrested and thrown into prison. All the people who were discovered to have had anything to do with the assassination or anyone with the slightest contact with Booth or Herold on their flight were put behind bars. Among the imprisoned were Louis J. Weichmann, a boarder in Mrs. Surratt’s house; Booth’s brother Junius (playing in Cincinnati at the time of the assassination); theatre owner John T. Ford, who was incarcerated for 40 days; James Pumphrey, the Washington livery stable owner from whom Booth hired his horse; John M. Lloyd, the innkeeper who rented Mrs. Surratt’s Maryland tavern and gave Booth and Herold carbines, rope, and whiskey the night of April 14; and Samuel Cox and Thomas A. Jones, who helped Booth and Herold escape across the Potomac.

Le Curé Barrette avec des Zouaves pontificaux

Eight suspects were tried by a military tribunal ordered by then-President Andrew Johnson on May 1, 1865. The nine-member commission was presided over by Major General David Hunter. The other eight voting members were Major General Lew Wallace, Brigadier Generals Robert Sanford Foster, Thomas Maley Harris, Albion P. Howe, and August Kautz, Colonels James A. Ekin and Charles H. Tompkins, and Lieutenant Colonel David Ramsay Clendenin.

The prosecution team was led by U.S. Army Judge Advocate General Joseph Holt, assisted by Congressman John A. Bingham and Major Henry Lawrence Burnett. The fact that they were tried by a military tribunal provoked criticism from both Edward Bates and Gideon Welles, who believed that a civil court should have presided. Attorney General James Speed, on the other hand, justified the use of a military tribunal on grounds that included the military nature of the conspiracy, that the defendants acted as enemy combatants and the existence of martial law in the District of Columbia.

The odds were further stacked against the defendants by rules that required only a simple majority of the officer jury for a guilty verdict and a two-thirds majority for a death sentence. Nor could the defendants appeal to anyone other than President Johnson. All of the defendants were found guilty on June 30. Mary Surratt, Lewis Powell, David Herold, and George Atzerodt were sentenced to death by hanging; Samuel Mudd, Samuel Arnold, and Michael O’Laughlen were sentenced to life in prison. Oddly, after sentencing Mary Surratt to hang, five of the jurors signed a letter recommending clemency, but Johnson refused to stop the execution.”

“As reported by the Daily Kos in the article at this link, did not the Congress under Reagan’s leadership also repeal the 1867 Act (meant to penalize the Vatican because of their attempt to assassinate Lincoln a couple of years prior to that act being passed)? Were Reagan’s and the Vatican’s policies almost identical as shown in the article at this link? Who really created Reagan’s policies?”


“On November 22nd, 1983, Ronald Reagan signed an accord with the Vatican State, and recognized this Nation with full diplomatic relations and an exchange of Ambassadors at the highest level, “Pro Nucio.” Diplomatic relations had been severed on June 13th, 1867 over Vatican involvement and engineering in the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln.

Pub. L. 98-164, title I, Sec. 134, Nov. 22, 1983, 97 Stat. 1029, provided that: “In order to provide for the establishment of United States diplomatic relations with the Vatican, the Act entitled ‘An Act making Appropriations for the Consular and Diplomatic Expenses of the Government for the Year ending thirtieth June, eighteen hundred and sixty-eight, and for other purposes’, approved February 28, 1867, is amended by repealing the following sentence (14 Stat. 413): ‘And no money hereby or otherwise appropriated shall be paid for the support of an American legation at Rome, from and after the thirtieth day of June, eighteen hundred and sixty-seven.’.”

by Phil Jayhan  /  February 21st, 2007

“That papal Rome was responsible for the assassination of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln no doubt seems to most people a rather far-fetched allegation. Nevertheless, on this page (including links) is presented evidence that leaves little doubt that the allegation is in fact true. While ‘Pius’ IX didn’t personally pull the trigger, several of the conspirators were not merely Roman ‘catholics’, but were schooled by the Jesuits who have long been advocates of regicide; the southern confederacy was linked heart and soul with popery; the ‘pope’—both shortly before and after the Lincoln assassination—made public pronouncements that were fiercely in opposition to protestant American constitutional liberty, and in favor of slavery; conspirator John Surratt fled after the crime with the aid of Roman priests to the Vatican for refuge; and President Lincoln was warned by letters from at least two individuals before the assassination to be on guard for his life against Roman ‘catholic’ assassins. Please read on for the specifics.

In her book, The Suppressed Truth about the Assassination of Abraham Lincoln, Burke McCarty begins by tracing the roots of papal antipathy toward popular (as opposed to monarchical, or ‘divine right’) government as far back as the Congresses of Vienna (Austria, 1814-15) and Verona (Italy, 1822). Part of the purpose of the Congress of Vienna was to restore the monarchies that had been deposed by Napoleon and the French Revolution. The papacy was represented at that congress by legate Cardinal Consalvi, and recovered the papal states, excluding any former territory in France.

The Secret Treaty of Verona evidences this pro-monarchical (divine right) theme. This was entered into the Congressional Record of April 25, 1916, by Senator Robert L. Owen. That the papacy was intimately involved in these congresses is proven by this quote from Article 3 of the Treaty: “… the contracting powers join in offering their thanks to the Pope for what he has already done for them, and solicit his constant cooperation in their views of submitting the nations.” The potential, and the perceived intent, for these European alliances to threaten popular government in the U.S.A. was the basis of the Monroe Doctrine. That McCarty had credible understanding of her subject is shown by the fact that in her book, published in 1924 (17 years before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor), she writes: “The next step in the Vatican’s Great Scheme is to make war between this country and Japan after the latter country has been placed under full dominance of the Jesuits.” (chapter 1)

McCarty goes on to document the evidence that proves that papal Rome and the Jesuits were intimately involved in the Lincoln assassination (1865), as well as in the assassinations of at least 2 other U.S presidents, and the attempted assassination of another:

1.) President William Henry Harrison (1841), who made his position clear in his inaugural address with these words: “We admit of no government by divine right, believing that so far as power is concerned, the beneficent Creator has made no distinction among men; that all are upon an equality, and that the only legitimate right to govern, is upon the express grant of power from the governed.” He was poisoned to death within less than 6 weeks.

2.) President Zachary Taylor (1850), who determined to preserve the Union against those forces seeking to divide it.

3.) President James Buchanan (1857, attempted assassination), who favored the North, and opposed the Jefferson Davis party on the slavery issue. Poisoned, along with about 50 others, of which 38 died, in 1857.

4.) President Abraham Lincoln (1865), murdered by John Wilkes Booth, tool of a papal/Jesuit conspiracy, as proven in McCarty’s book.

McCarty traces conspirator John Surratt, after the Lincoln assassination, to Canada, where he hid for a time in the care of Roman priests, and on to Rome, where he was found in the service of the papal army under an assumed name, and from whence he was demanded to be extradited to the U.S. for trial. However he was allowed to escape by his papal military guard. He then boarded a steamer for Egypt, where he was aprehended by an American agent.

At least three of the convicted conspirators, David Herold, Samuel Mudd, and Samuel Arnold, were alumni of Jesuit Georgetown University. This is acknowledged in the Georgetown Library Associates Newsletter, #67, Spring, 2003, under the heading Did John Wilkes Booth ever attend Georgetown?, wherein it is stated: “Although the Archivist has heard repeated suggestions that Booth not only attended Georgetown but founded Mask and Bauble while a student, the Archives contains nothing to confirm this. The suggestions may have arisen because there were connections between Georgetown and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. In fact, of the eight people convicted in the assassination conspiracy, three were Georgetown alumni.

“…the final result transcends propaganda, to remain a thrilling work of art.”

David Herold, who attended the College from 1855-1858, was hanged for his role. He not only guided Lewis Paine to Secretary of State William Seward’s house where Paine attempted to stab Seward to death, but helped the injured Booth to escape after Lincoln’s shooting. Samuel Bland Arnold, who attended 1844-1845, had been part of a previous conspiracy with Herold to kidnap Lincoln and was sentenced to life imprisonment, as was Dr. Samuel Mudd, a student from 1851-1852, who set Booth’s broken ankle. Arnold and Mudd were pardoned by Andrew Johnson in 1869.

Conspirator John Surratt, who escaped conviction by flight, was an alumna of St. Charles College, founded by the Sulpicians, who also helped the Jesuits establish Georgetown University. As stated in Georgetown Magazine, July 1977, They Came to Georgetown: The French Sulpicians: “In its first two decades, Georgetown drew heavily on the abilities—and availability—of French Sulpician priests and seminarians.” The New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia says, under the topic Maryland: “From the time of the first Jesuit missionaries Catholic effort for sound education has been constant. To further the organization of a native clergy Bishop Carroll secured the services of a number of Sulpicians, who on 3 October, 1791, began St. Mary’s Seminary, Baltimore…. Under the same direction St. Charles College, Ellicott City, was founded in 1830. Georgetown University (q. v.) was founded in 1778, and in its first years some of the Sulpicians assisted as professors in the work of the institution, carried on by the Society of Jesus. The Sulpicians, in fact, sprang out of a Jesuit root, as their founder Jean-Jacques Olier was educated by the Jesuits in his youth.”

John Surratt’s mother and fellow-conspirator, Mary Surratt, who was convicted and hanged for her part in the conspiracy, was a devout papist, who attended Mass regularly. She viewed John Wilkes Booth’s murderous act as the work of God, as she said to her daughter, “Booth was an instrument in the hands of the Almighty to punish this wicked and licentious people.” It was in her home that the plot was developed, and she aided in its execution by making preparation, before the assassination, for the imminent flight of Booth and Herold. President Johnson, who succeeded Lincoln, said of her, “Mrs. Surratt kept the nest that hatched the egg”.

Booth himself expressed sentiments similar to Mary Surratt’s when he entered into his diary on April 21, 6 days after the murder, “Our country owed all our troubles to him, and God made me the instrument of His punishment.” John Wilkes Booth was first introduced to his fellow conspirator, Samuel Mudd, at the Bryantown Catholic Church at Sunday morning Mass, as there is abundant testimony in the conspirators’ trial documents. Tidwell writes of Booth, in Come Retribution, p. 254: “The records of St. Timothy’s Episcopal Church show that John Wilkes Booth was baptized by the rector, Libertus Van Bokkelen on 23 January 1853. No record of confirmation has been found. There are unverified reports that in the last year or so of his life, Booth flirted with Catholicism.”

NSA: The ultimate confessional booth

Burke McCarty, in chapter 7 of her book mentioned above, includes a letter she received from Rear Admiral Geo. W. Baird, U.S.N. retired, in which he tells how he helped to identify Booth’s body, saying: “I was called on board the Montauk by Lieut. W. W. Crowninshield, to identify the body of John Wilkes Booth, which I did. I noticed a piece of cord about the size of a cod line on his (Booth’s) neck and invited Crowninshield’s attention to it, who pulled it out and on it was a small Roman Catholic medal. Surgeon General Barnes arrived at that moment and probed the wound in Booth’s neck.”

Former Roman priest Emmet McLoughlin, in his book An Inquiry Into the Assassination of Abraham Lincoln, p. 50, gives a bit of telling information about the influence of Georgetown on its students:The Jesuit-controlled Georgetown University, oldest Catholic college in the United States, had 1500 graduates and students of military age in 1861. Of these, 951 joined the armies of the Confederacy, while only 210 were loyal to the American government. (citing Arizona Register, April 21, 1961). This is especially telling in light of the fact that Maryland, where Georgetown was located, remained loyal to the Union.

Religious Affiliations of the Current U.S. Supreme Court
“With six Roman Catholics on the Supreme Court, with four of them (Scalia, Thomas, Alito, Roberts) theologically and intellectually and politically conservative as only well-educated Catholics can be, it is not unfair to characterize the legal conservative movement led by these justices as medieval in its intentions and Jesuitical in its methods.”

Jesuit College and University Alumni/ae in the Obama Administration and 113th Congress
“President Obama’s Intelligence Team: on the far right, Director of National Intelligence James Clapper (Alma Mater at Catholic St. Mary’s University, Texas).  Also attending are, clockwise from left, Robert Cardillo, formerly Deputy Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), now Director of National Intelligence for Intelligence Integration (schooled at Jesuit Georgetown University). Deputy National Security Advisor Tom Donilon (attended La Salle Academy, earned a B.A. at the Catholic University of America in 1977).  Donilon is connected to the Biden family.  Not pictured is Joe Biden, Vice-President of the United States, (as a youth Biden attended Archmere Academy, a Roman Catholic college preparatory school and he has received honorary degrees from Jesuit University of Scranton, and Jesuit Saint Joseph’s University). Rodney Snyder, Senior Director for Intelligence Program (no BIO available). John Brennan, Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism (attended private catholic schools from his youth, is Alma Mater at Jesuit Fordham University and is former CIA). Finally, National Security Advisor General James L. Jones (Alma Mater Jesuit Georgetown University).”

The Jesuits have, from their inception and throughout their history, been teachers and advocates of regicide or, euphemistically, tyrannicide. Because there is so much evidence of this in their writings, some of it is included here on a separate page. These teachings could easily have been viewed as applicable to Lincoln in the mentality of the loyal Confederate, many of whom viewed him as a tyrant. Consider, e.g., Booth’s cry of sic semper tyrannis (thus always to tyrants) after he fired the fatal shot. Lincoln was, among other things in their eyes, taking away their slaves, which they viewed as their ‘property’, etc. In

1867, approximately 2 years after Lincoln was assassinated, the U.S. State Department published a book titled “The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln, Late President of the United States of America, and the Attempted Assassination of William H. Seward, Secretary of State, and Frederick W. Seward, Assistant Secretary, on the Evening of the 14th of April, 1865. Expressions of Condolences and Sympathy Inspired by These Events.” The book is a collection of expressions of condolence and solace received from all over the world after President ‘Honest Abe’ Lincoln was despicably murdered in cold blood from behind his back while he sat with his wife enjoying some relaxation from his arduous duties, having just prevailed in the long and drawn-out struggle to preserve the Union and abolish slavery. These condolences were received from governments of nations, states, cities and towns, from churches and synagogues, from societies, fraternities, lodges and clubs, from labor unions and business associations, from schools and colleges—from every corner of the world. They are all translated into English.

This reader was moved to near incessant weeping to read the unanimity of the most sincere and deeply heartfelt sentiments of admiration and eulogy for Mr. Lincoln and the cause for which, in the end, he gave his life—the expunging of cursed slavery from a society founded on liberty and equality. While I did not take the time to read every word on every page, I did scan over each page looking for material of interest for the topic addressed here. What I found was that, to the guilt of papal Rome in the Rebellion and the assassination, was borne ample testimony, by their silence. While there were condolences from a large number of ‘protestant’ churches, conferences, councils, etc.—many of them with lengthy and moving expressions of admiration for Mr. Lincoln, including a thorough knowledge of his public life and conduct in office—there was not a single official word from the Vatican.

Rufus King, legate of the U.S. at Rome, in a correspondence of May 6, 1865 with William Hunter, Acting Secretary of State for the U.S., included in a single short paragraph of three sentences the fact that he had had an “official interview” with Cardinal Antonelli wherein Antonelli had taken the opportunity to express his and the papal “horror” at the assassination, and “begged” King to “make known these sentiments to the authorities at Washington” (p. 685). This sort of second-hand expression of sympathy does not bespeak sincerity or earnestness, and was but minimal, obligatory, and empty. And not only was the Vatican entirely silent; but I did not find a single word from a ‘catholic’ church, school, fraternity, club, or group of any sort—not a one! Thousands and thousands of people across the world were moved to express their condolences and solidarity with the people of the United States in the time of their tragic loss; but not one ‘catholic’ is recorded as having done so. That is because, as is clearly and thoroughly demonstrated on this page, the sentiments of papists were wholeheartedly with the Southern Confederacy and against ‘Lincoln & Co’. The reason for that is because the papacy has always been, and will always be, the enemy of free governments—for their goal has always been, and will always be, to enslave the world to themselves. They profess to speak in the name of Him Who is the Light of the world and Who came to give to men the truth that would set them free; but by their corrupted ‘gospel’ they enslave their adherents in darkness and deceit and idolatry.

Further, along with the manifold expressions of condolence for the people of the U.S.A., and of the universal execration of the assassins, was continually expressed the congratulatory and joyous regard for the banishing of the blight of slavery from American society. These were the sentiments of like-minded and enlightened people from around the world who, though distant geographically, were united in their hearts with the American people in their struggle. Contrast these sentiments with those of the papacy which, barely a year after Lincoln—’first in peace and in the hearts of his countrymen’—was murdered by an assassin drunken on the spirit of slavery, published its doctrine clearly in the defense of slavery (see Pius IX, Instruction 20, below). While I cannot publish the entire book of condolences here due to the size of the PDF file, I have typed out some of the expressed sentiments of the citizens of Italy which, obviously, are quite different from those of papal Rome. Read them. Brigadier General (brevetted Major General) Thomas M. Harris was a member of the military tribunal which tried and convicted the conspirators.

He wrote a book titled Assassination of Lincoln, A History of the Great Conspiracy (1892), and, later a tract titled Rome’s Responsibility For The Assassination Of Abraham Lincoln (1897). Chapter XVIII of the book, describing the flight and capture of John Surratt, says this in part: “At this point we meet with a new element amongst the Canada conspirators, viz., the Roman Catholic priesthood. Porterfield had arranged with Father Boucher to take his charge [John Surratt] in custody, and keep him concealed. This Father was rector of the parish of St. Liboire, a newly-settled place, about forty-five miles from Montreal—an out-of-the-way place, and so a good place in which to hide him away. The arrangements had been made in advance with this Father to take charge of Surratt, and keep him secreted at his house. He was conveyed there by one Joseph F. Du Tilley, who seems to have been priest Boucher’s right hand man.

The stratagem to get him away from Montreal was as follows: two carriages drove up in front of Porterfield’s house late in the afternoon, when two persons, dressed as nearly as possible alike, went out together; one of these got into one of the carriages, and the other into the other, when they drove away in different directions. Father Boucher appeared at the trial of Surratt as a voluntary witness for the defense, and without any apparent sense of shame convicted himself, by his own testimony, of being an accomplice after the fact. We think that the testimony he gave warrants the conclusion, also, that another priest, Father La Pierre, placed himself in the same category. Both of these Fathers took Surratt into their houses, and kept him concealed,—the first for three, and the latter for two months,—knowing him to be charged with being a conspirator to the assassination of the President of the United States.”

Papal Zouaves pose in 1869

Surratt is next found in Italy, in the army of the Pope, where he had enlisted as a soldier in the ninth company of Zouaves about the middle of April, 1866. He had found friends after his escape from Washington, who had supported him, kept him secreted, watched over his safety, planned his trip from Montreal to Italy, and furnished him money for the expenses of his journey; friends who, no doubt, were accomplices before, as well as after, the fact, for we find them waiting and watching for his return to Montreal after the assassination, and ready to hurry him off into seclusion. He was to them a stranger; only known to them as a fugitive from his country, charged with the highest crime that a man could commit,—a blow at the nation’s life, by murdering the nation’s head,—a crime against liberty and humanity. These could not have been his friends for mere personal reasons, but from sympathy in the general purpose of this great crime,—the subversion of our free institutions.

A portion of the tract, speaking of Rome’s likely involvment and leadership in the plot, reads: “It was Abraham Lincoln, it is true, that was slain, but it was the life of the nation that the blow was aimed at. The scheme to aid the rebellion by the assassination of the President, the Vice-President, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of War, and the General in command of our armies, was concocted by the emissaries of the rebel government, who kept their headquarters in Montreal, Canada. These emissaries held a semi-official relation to the Confederate government. The whole run of the evidence makes it clear that the Roman Hierarchy kept itself in close relations with these emissaries; and it is highly probable, from a consideration of all of the facts, with the head of the government in whose service they were employed also. It kept itself in these close relations for a purpose, and was most likely the original source of the inspiration of the assassination plot.”

In his book, Fifty Years in the Church of Rome, (first published 1886), chapters 59-61, ex-Roman priest Charles Chiniquy, who was personally acquainted with President Lincoln, details his belief of the intimate involvement of the Jesuits in the Lincoln assassination plot. Lincoln had clearly and publicly voiced his opposition to the barbaric decision of the Supreme Court in Dred Scott v. Sanford, which majority opinion was authored by Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney (who, at the time, was the first and only papist ever appointed to the Court), and which declared that “… the enslaved African race were not intended to be included …” in the phrase of the Declaration of Independence “… all men are created equal …”, but were “…beings of an inferior order, and altogether unfit to associate with the white race, either in social or political relations; and so far inferior, that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect; and that the negro might justly and lawfully be reduced to slavery…”. That Roman ‘catholic’ sympathies were, for the most part, wholly aligned with the Southern Confederacy and in agreement with the Dred Scott decision is made clear in this study by Dr. Patrick Carey, published in The Catholic Historical Review, vol.88, April, 2002. Further, Lincoln had bested the papist Stephen A Douglas in their series of debates, and beaten Douglas at the polls in the bid for the presidency.

Prior to Lincoln’s election, he was warned in a letter by Oliver H. P. Parker, that Mr. Parker’s “very thorough private investigation” had revealed that the deaths of former presidents William Henry Harrison (1841), and Zachary Taylor (1850), had been assassinations, and that the near death of former president James Buchanan (1857) had been an attempted assassination. Further, that these assassinations were the work of pro-slavery, Roman ‘catholic’ elements in the country. Mr. Parker makes repeated mention of his suspicion that the ‘Borgias’ were responsible. (The Borgias are an Italian crime family intimately connected with the Vatican, having seated three of their own as popes and eleven as cardinals.) Parker closes his letter by cautioning Lincoln: “Therefore your salvation is caution, and vigilance;—In the selection of your servants be careful not to have any Roman Catholics or Papists about you have none but American born, black and white and have nothing but Protestants, about you, and then I will feel as though you will be comparatively safe.”

In September, 1863, the president of the Southern Confederacy, Jefferson Davis, appointed Dudley Mann as a special envoy to deliver a letter to the Vatican. The Confederate States were hoping to obtain recognition from the Vatican, which would be a great step forward in their cause. Mr. Mann proceeded to Rome, where he met with the Vatican Secretary of State, Cardinal Antonelli, as related in this letter to J. P. Benjamin. An excerpt of the letter: “His Eminence then remarked that he could not withhold from me an expression of his unbounded admiration of the wonderful powers which we had exhibited in the field in resistance to a war which had been prosecuted with an energy, aided by the employment of all the recent improvements in the instruments for the destruction of life and property, unparalleled, perhaps, in the world’s history. He asked me several questions with respect to President Davis, at the end of which he observed that he certainly had created for himself a name that would rank with those of the most illustrious statesmen of modern times. He manifested an earnest desire for the definitive termination of hostilities, and observed that there was nothing the government of the Holy See could do with propriety to occasion such a result that it was not prepared to do.”

Mr. Mann then met with the ‘pope’ as related in this letter to Mr. Benjamin. The ‘pope’ expressed approval of the cause for which the Confederacy was contending, and invited Mr. Mann to remain with him in Rome for several months. Excerpts of the letter: “His Holiness received these remarks with an approving expression. He then said that I had reason to be proud of the self-sacrificing devotion of my countrymen from the beginning to the cause for which they were contending.” His Holiness now observed: “I will write a letter to President Davis, and of such a character that it may be published for general perusal.” I expressed my heartfelt gratification for the assertion of this purpose. He then remarked, half inquiringly: “You will remain here for several months?” Mr. Mann then had a second meeting with Cardinal Antonelli, as related in this letter. Representatives of the United States had noticed and protested the friendly acquaintance and hospitality being extended to the Rebel government representatives. Cardinal Antonelli stated that he intended to offer special protection to the “Rebels”. Also Mr. Mann believed that the Rebel government had been virtually recognized by the Vatican.

Excerpts from the letter: “He took the occasion to inform me, at the commencement, that the acting representative of the United States had obtained an interview of him the day before to remonstrate against the facilities afforded by the government of the holy see to “Rebels” for entering and abiding in Rome; and that he, the cardinal, promptly replied that he intended to take such “Rebels” under his special protection, because it would be making exactions upon elevated humanity which it was incapable of conscientiously complying with, to expect them to take an oath of allegiance to a country which they bitterly detested. … We have been virtually, if not practically, recognized here. While I was in the foreign office the day before yesterday, foreign ministers were kept waiting for a considerable length of time in the antechamber in order that my interview might not be disturbed. Frequently the cardinal would take my hand between his and exclaim: “Mon cher, your Government has accomplished prodigies, alike in the cabinet and in the field.”

“He [Antonelli] is bold, courageous, resolute, and is a great admirer of President Davis … The ‘pope’ responded with a letter to Davis in which he addresses him as “Illustrious and honorable sir”, and as the “President of the Confederate States of America”. However, it seems that the letter came short of giving formal recognition to the Confederacy. Nevertheless, Mr. Mann believed that it was essentially a formal recognition, as stated in this letter. Excerpts: “In the very direction of this communication there is a positive recognition of our Government. … It is addressed “to the Illustrious and Honorable Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America.” … Thus we are acknowledged, by as high an authority as this world contains, to be an independent power of the earth.”

However, Mr. Benjamin informs Mr. Mann in this letter that while the papal letter was producing a “good effect”, it wasn’t viewed as a formal recognition of the Confederacy. Excerpts: “The President has been much gratified at learning the cordial reception which you received from the Pope, and the publication of the correspondence here (of which I send you a newspaper slip) has had a good effect. Its best influences, as we hope, will be felt elsewhere in producing a check on the foreign enlistments made by the United States. As a recognition of the Confederate States we can not attach to it the same value that you do, a mere inferential recognition, unconnected with political action or the regular establishment of diplomatic relations, possessing none of the moral weight required for awakening the people of the United States from their delusion that these States still remain members of the old Union. … an intestine or civil war, as it is termed by the Pope. This phrase of his letter shows that his address to the President as “President of the Confederate States” is a formula of politeness to his correspondent, not a political recognition of a fact. None of our public journals treat the letter as a recognition in the sense you attach to it … .” Then, in this letter by Cardinal Antonelli to the CSA Commissioners, there is the suggestion of ‘recognition’ in that he makes mention of “… the most bloody war which still rages in your countries … .”—as though the Union and the Confederacy were now two separate countries.

In this letter Mr. Mann states his intention to proceed to London for the purpose of expanding the influence of the papal recognition. And in this letter he mentions his perception that the public sentiment in Italy was turning in favor of the Confederacy. Excerpts: “Throughout Italy, as far as I was enabled to ascertain from my bankers and numerous other intelligent individuals, enlightened public sentiment is beginning steadily to array itself against “Lincoln and Company,” … . The impious comparison which he [Garibaldi] made of Abraham Lincoln to Jesus Christ has damaged largely his reputation in all Catholic circles while it has popularized our cause. After its [the papal letter] careful perusal, they united in opinion that its early publication on this side of the Atlantic was of almost paramount importance to the influencing of valuable public opinion, in both hemispheres, in our favor. … the direction [of the papal letter], which in itself was positive recognition.”

N. Ireland struggles to confront Catholic Church’s enslavement of thousands of women

Mr. Benjamin states in this letter to Mr. Slidell the positive effect (for the Confederacy) the papal letter was having, and the hoped for effect on papists in the North. Excerpts: “I take it for granted that you have seen the correspondence between the President and the Pope, but enclose it, as published here, with the translation made in the Department of the Pope’s letters. The effect on our people has been good, and we hope that some benefit will be experienced from this correspondence in the influence excited on Roman Catholics in the North. Another Confederate envoy to Europe and the Vatican was Archbishop Patrick Neisen Lynch of Charleston. The Knights of Columbus Council which bears his name says this of him: “Father Lynch was elevated to the Episcopate as the 3rd Bishop of Charleston in 1858. His Episcopate would be particularly noteworthy because Bishop Lynch enjoyed the distinction of being a close friend and confidant of Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederate States of America. Because of this relationship, President Davis would appoint Bishop Lynch Ambassador Plenipotentiary of the Confederacy to Europe. In his roll as Davis’ Special Envoy, Bishop Lynch traveled to the Vatican and the Courts of Europe to plead the cause of the Confederacy for the express purpose of securing for it diplomatic recognition. He was very nearly successful when the war ended and Bishop Lynch found himself stranded in Europe as the Federal Government had denied him permission to return the United States and had, in fact, petitioned the Vatican to assign to a post in Europe to prevent his return to Charleston.”

At the outbreak of the war, Lynch was the bishop of Charleston and the editor of the first ‘catholic’ newspaper in the U.S., the United States Catholic Miscellany. At the beginning of 1861, it was re-named the Charleston Catholic Miscellany to reflect the secessionist views of its authors and subscribers. This was made clear in the words of its then editor: “The American Catholic Historical Society tried to credit the title change to the paper’s smaller range, noting that Georgia had become its own diocese in 1850, but the editor, Father James Corcoran, made no bones about the reason for the change. He wrote that he could no longer tolerate “those two obnoxious words (i.e.: United States), which being henceforth without truth of meaning would ill become the title of the paper.” [1997-98, The Diocese of Charleston]

New Advent (Roman) Catholic Encyclopedia says of Lynch: “Towards the end of the war Bishop Lynch went to Europe as the accredited representative of the Confederacy on a confidential mission.” The Augusta Chronicle says of him: “Patrick Lynch, another Irishman who became bishop, was raised in Charleston, the son of a slave owner. As bishop, he owned 100 slaves himself. Although he believed it was wrong to trade, abuse or neglect slaves, he defended slavery as a part of the culture and economy. When South Carolina broke with the Union, he pledged his allegiance to his state and then to the Confederacy.” The Confederacy sent him to the Vatican as its representative, but the Vatican did not recognize him. Instead, it gave him a new set of vestments and told him to go home. After the South lost the war, he was barred from entering the United States. It took months to get a pardon from President Andrew Johnson to allow his re-entry. [The Augusta Chronicle]

The diplomatic correspondence between the Papal States and the United States in that day adds some color to this: “Bishop Lynch of Charleston S. C., late Confederate Agent, is still here. I had an interview with him, at his request, a short time since. He admitted that the cause of the South was hopeless, expressed a wish to return to his home and post of duty and asked me on what terms he could be re-admitted into the United States. I told him that the first thing to be done was to take the oath of allegiance and make his peace with the Federal Government. This he was ready and willing to do, if that would suffice; but he seemed apprehensive that if he returned to America he might be proceeded against criminally. I told him that the President’s Proclamation, which was daily expected, would no doubt contain full information on this point. The Proclamation has since arrived and Bishop Lynch, I understand, considers himself included in the list of “exceptions”.”

[footnote: Johnson’s Proclamation of May 29, granting amnesty and pardon to all who participated in the Southern cause, excepting certain classes. citing Richardson, Messages and Papers of the Presidents, VI, 308. United States Ministers to the Papal States, Instructions and Despatches 1848-1868, edited by Leo Frances Stock, Ph.D, LL.D,  1933, American Catholic Historical Society, p. 342-43, Letter No. 42. of Rufus King (U.S. legate at Rome) to William H. Seward (U.S. Secretary of State), June 24, 1865]

Bishop Lynch is very anxious to get back to Charleston, but very apprehensive that he may be held to account for his “sayings and doings”, as an avowed Confederate agent. The “supplies”, I suspect, have given out and the Bishop, who “entertained” a good deal, last year, by way of creating a “public opinion” in favor of the South, is now, I understand, a “guest” of the Propaganda and without “visible means of support.”
[Ibid., p. 344, Private letter of Rufus King (U.S. legate at Rome) to William H. Seward (U.S. Secretary of State), June 26, 1865[

T. Soutter was sent to Rome with a dispatch for Lynch, who was gone; whereupon he delivered the letter directly to Cardinal Antonelli, who was entirely familiar and sympathetic with the Rebel cause, desiring their success. Soutter describes the meeting in a letter to John Slidell. Excerpts of the letter: “Immediately on my arrival here I sought the residence of the Right Rev. Bishop Lynch and learned that he had left Rome, to be absent several weeks… Accordingly I waited on the cardinal at the appointed hour and he gave me a most cordial greeting, shaking my hand warmly, and, leading me to a seat near his desk, he at once entered upon the discussion of the affairs of the Confederate States. He made no secret of his sympathy with our cause and had not the slightest hesitation in saying he desired our success. … I was more than gratified with the great interest he manifested in the cause dear to our hearts.”

In this letter, J. P. Benjamin commissions John Bannon (Roman Priest) to go to Ireland for the purpose of discouraging the Irish from immigrating to the North, lest they serve in the Northern Army. He also suggests that Mr. Bannon might visit the ‘pope’ at Rome in order to receive his assistance and blessing for the mission. Excerpt: “If, in order fully to carry out the objects of the Government as above expressed, you should deem it advisable to go to Rome for the purpose of obtaining such sanction from the sovereign pontiff as will strengthen your hands and give efficiency to your action, you are at liberty to do so, as well as to invite to your assistance any Catholic prelate from the Northern States known to you to share your convictions of the justice of our cause and of the duty of laboring for its success.”

This letter from Confederate Major-General T. J. ‘Stonewall’ Jackson to Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston shows that they were working in concert with papal priests. He writes: “I have taken special pains to obtain information respecting General Banks, but I have not been informed of his having gone east. I will see what can be effected through the Catholic priests in Martinsburg.” John E. Tallon M. D. (Surgeon in the U. S. Army) wrote in this letter to President Lincoln: “The Roman Catholic Clergy of Louisiana generally, I believe are Rebels at heart …”

That the papal priests and the Irish ‘catholics’ generally sided with the South is shown in this letter from S. C. Hayes to Jefferson Davis, in which he writes: “I mention these circumstances to show you that the great body of Irish at the North feel a deep interest in our success, more especially in Pennsylvania, where they have been subjected to bitter persecution. Although I am an elder in the Presbyterian Church, yet I had conversations with quite a number of Roman Catholic priests at the North, all of whom, with one exception, expressed the utmost confidence and sympathy in our success. Also in this letter from Major Jos. Darr to Lieutenant Colonel W. H. Chesebrough, in which he says of Daniel O’Connor, Roman priest and prisoner: “… he does not hesitate to follow in the footsteps of his bishop and declares his sympathy with the rebels while claiming that he is not an American citizen.”

Also in this letter from Joshua Fiero, Jr. (Captain and Provost-Marshal, North) to Colonel James B. Fry (Provost-Marshal-General, North). Excerpts: “… both localities largely settled by the Irish people. This resistance was mostly made by the Irish women. I called upon the Catholic priest, who assured me that all he could do to restore order should be done. After this better order prevailed. … a meeting was held last night attended by some 300 persons, mostly Irish, who hurrahed for Jeff. Davis and Lee, and voted to resist the draft.” Further evidence of Roman ‘catholic’ sympathy with the South is shown in this letter from Jo. O. Shelby (Brigadier-Genreral) to Lieutenant-Colonel L. A. Maclean, in which he states: “I find that this settlement [Westphalia] is Catholic and composed of Southern sympathizers.”

The Southern Army made it a practice of enlisting its Roman ‘catholic’ prisoners of war into its own ranks, as shown by this letter from Jno. Blair Hoge (Major and Assistant Adjutant-General) to Major-General D. H. Maury, in which he writes: “… relating to the subject of recruiting prisoners of war … by recruiting chiefly among Catholic Irish and other foreigners and obtaining the influence of the Catholic priesthood they may secure faithful soldiers.” As to the material to be received as recruits, it is recommended that Catholic Irish be preferred, and next to them other foreigners. Further evidence of this is found in this letter of J. A. Seddon (Secretary of War) to General M. J. Wright in which he writes, regarding 1,000 or more catholic Irish who wished to enlist in the Confederate Army: “The enlistment of Irish and other foreign prisoners, as proposed, is sanctioned.” And in this letter, Edwin M. Stanton (Secretary of War, North) authorizes Governor Morton (of Indiana) to release 200 ‘catholic’ Confederate prisoners, and to enlist them into the Northern Army. The absence of Roman clergy in the Northern forces is shown in this letter from Major-General W. T. Sherman to Admiral D. D. Porter, wherein he writes: “… don’t believe a single Catholic priest is in our fleet; have sent to enquire, but the answer comes back from each division, None.”

Approximately four months prior to the assassination, ‘Pope’ Pius IX had declared papal Rome’s official position to be at odds with Protestant America and the liberties secured by the U.S. Constitution in his ‘Syllabus of Errors‘ (December 8, 1864):

Some excerpts:

  1. [It is error to believe that] Every man is free to embrace and profess that religion which, guided by the light of reason, he shall consider true.
  2. [It is error to believe that] Protestantism is nothing more than another form of the same true Christian religion, in which form it is given to please God equally as in the Catholic Church.
  3. [It is error to believe that] The Church has not the power of defining dogmatically that the religion of the Catholic Church is the only true religion.
  4. [It is error to believe that] The Church has not the power of using force, nor has she any temporal power, direct or indirect.
  5. [It is error to believe that] Kings and princes are not only exempt from the jurisdiction of the Church, but are superior to the Church in deciding questions of jurisdiction.
  6. [It is error to believe that] The Church ought to be separated from the State, and the State from the Church.
  7. [It is error to believe that] In the present day it is no longer expedient that the Catholic religion should be held as the only religion of the State, to the exclusion of all other forms of worship.
  8. [It is error to believe that] Hence it has been wisely decided by law, in some Catholic countries, that persons coming to reside therein shall enjoy the public exercise of their own peculiar worship.
  9. [It is error to believe that] Moreover, it is false that the civil liberty of every form of worship, and the full power, given to all, of overtly and publicly manifesting any opinions whatsoever and thoughts, conduce more easily to corrupt the morals and minds of the people, and to propagate the pest of indifferentism. [The meaning of this is: that it is the view of the Vatican that freedom of worship, and freedom of speech, tend to corrupt the morals and minds of the people and to propogate indifferentism.]

A little more than two months before the assassination, Lincoln received a letter from Louisa Harrison warning him to be on guard against Roman Catholic assassins. It appears that all links to this letter at the Library of Congress are temporary, and thus a link cannot be posted here. The letter can be viewed in photographic format at the Lincoln Papers site by entering “Louisa Harrison” into the ‘keyword’ search. Be sure to set the search filter to “match this exact phrase”. (click on the “Archival grayscale/color (JPEG – 203K)” link for a more readable image.) A portion of it reads: “Do you Sir, not forsee some danger from Catholicism—spread as its members are—all over the Union. They follow and obey their Priests implicitly. And they again their Head—so that one man can cause the uprising of this entire Body of Secret sworn ? —sworn to destroy the Heretic and think that they are doing God service!

The letter tells the story of how an associate of the writer had once seen a new RC church and observed them unpacking and polishing weapons in the basement; and heard talk of the ‘Catholics’ rising up to massacre the Protestants. The letter states that there was much talk of a report that the uprising was to be on March 10th (Lincoln was assassinated April 14). Near the end of the letter, it says: I know the Lord is able to put to flight the armies of the Ailen (sic, alien). And if they are plotting a midnight assassin on so stupendous a scale—my trust is that He will lay his hand on all the Leaders.…”

About fourteen months after the assassination of Lincoln, ‘pope’ Pius IX stated the papal position on slavery, which was virtually in agreement with the position of the Southern Confederacy: “Slavery itself, considered as such in its essential nature, is not at all contrary to the natural and divine law, and there can be several just titles of slavery and these are referred to by approved theologians and commentators of the sacred canons. It is not contrary to the natural and divine law for a slave to be sold, bought, exchanged or given. The purchaser should carefully examine whether the slave who is put up for sale has been justly or unjustly deprived of his liberty, and that the vendor should do nothing which might endanger the life, virtue, or Catholic faith of the slave.” [Pius IX, Instruction 20, June 1866]

The evidence is overwhelming that Roman ‘catholics’, under the leadership of their clergy and, ultimately, the ‘pope’, were in favor of the Southern Confederacy and opposed to “Lincoln & Co.”. That the assassination of Lincoln was not the work of John Wilkes Booth acting alone, but was a conspiracy that traces back to the Vatican—to which John Surratt fled for refuge—is borne out by abundance of evidence. And even if some of that evidence is but circumstantial, it is weighty, and compelling. In the end, the reader must draw his or her own conclusions. But the facts are, and will remain, inescapable.”

Solving Lincoln’s Assassination
by Steven Hagern  /   September 12, 2014

I tinkered around conducting my own deep political research for years, but it wasn’t until I began the study of secret societies that I made any real headway. My big breakthrough was exploring connections between the Sicilian men-of-honor society and the Central Intelligence Agency, two secret societies that plotted to assassinate Fidel Castro. But after JFK called off that murder, the same team assembled to kill Castro ended up killing Kennedy. If Congress ever holds a real investigation, this is the reality that will emerge, although I suppose the instigators will be long dead by then.

I could write about 9/11 today, after all it is the anniversary, but my musing on that subject don’t attract much attention and offend those who prefer to keep their heads in the sand. I’m sure Facebook downgrades 9/11 posts anyway, unless they support the official story. There’s so much mud in the water and games being played regarding 9/11 that it’ll probably take another 13 years for enough real evidence to emerge to start pointing fingers at the true culprits, though I am certain 9/11 was staged to jump-start two wars that killed over two million people and made billions for the military-industrial complex, while suspending most of our Constitutional rights, because that’s the way deep politics works.

You can’t understand the Lincoln assassination without understanding the Knights of the Golden Circle, one of the more powerful secret societies in America at the time of the assassination. Funny how almost nothing has been written about the Knights, although their existence was well-established before the Civil War. Apparently, the organization grew out of Southern Rights clubs in the South who wished to open up more territory to slavery. These secret clubs financed slave ships that continued to illegally abduct Africans after the slave trade was officially abolished in 1808. In 1844, the War with Mexico was championed by these clubs because they desired to invade Mexico so it could be carved-up into slave states to insure the balance of power in Congress remained with the South.


In 1855, a resident of Cincinnati, Ohio, named George Bickley organized the Southern Rights movement into the highly secretive Knights of the Golden Circle (K.G.C.), a volunteer militia initially formed for a new invasion of Mexico. Eventually, tens of thousands joined the society, and many came from Northern states. A secret history of the society was written in 1861 and appeared a few years ago online here.

But only three years after the Civil War commenced, the K.G.C. was exposed. Some were leading pro-slave “peace movements” while others were acting as spies and dirty tricks operatives for the Confederacy.

The Army spent months investigating the K.G.C. and the Judge Advocate General eventually produced an exhaustive report titled: “The Order of American Knights”, alias “The Sons of Liberty:” A Western Conspiracy in Aid of the Southern Rebellion, published by the Union Congressional Committee, Washington D.C., 1864. Among other things, the report identified most of the state leaders in the North and claimed Clement Vallindigham, leader of the Copperhead Democrats in Ohio, was the society’s Supreme Commander. Vallindigham had been a member of Congress, but after he lost his seat, President Lincoln had him deported to South Carolina as an enemy alien. You can read the Congressional report here.

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Isn’t it odd that none of Lincoln biographies or recent films mention K.G.C.? In the 1930s an amateur historian and chemistry professor in Chicago put forth the theory that Secretary of War Edwin Stanton was involved in the Lincoln assassination and played the crucial role in covering up the true origins of the plot. After Lincoln’s death, Stanton seized all power in Washington D.C. and took charge of the investigation and ran a military court that swiftly hung some minor players. What nobody seems to mention, however, is that Stanton and Vallindigham were very close personal friends, and that Vallindigham funded Stanton’s rise in politics. Booth’s induction into the K.G.C. is well documented and Booth may have been following instructions from Vallindigham, who had one of the biggest axes to grind against Lincoln.

The transcripts of the trial are available online, or you can watch Robert Redford’s film The Conspirator, which focuses on Mary Surratt, who was targeted as chief patsy and swiftly hung. Her son John was studying to be a Catholic priest but instead joined the K.G.C. He became one of the primary couriers for the Confederacy during the war, and was involved in the K.G.C. plot to kidnap Lincoln so he could be traded for Confederate prisoners of war. But when the kidnap plan shifted to murder, Surratt fled to Canada, where he remained in hiding while his mother was tried and hung as chief patsy.

Surratt was such a devoted Catholic he volunteered to defend the Papal States during the final years of their existence. Eighteen months after his mother was hung, however, he was spotted in Egypt and escorted back to America to stand trial still wearing his Papal Zouave uniform. Fortunately for Surratt, a law had just been passed forbidding military courts from trying civilians so the government was unable to secure his conviction, although Surratt freely admitted associations with Booth, he claimed no part of the murder and most of the jury believed him. Later on, Surratt would publish his diary and the most astonishing thing was his frequent mentions of the K.G.C. on almost every other page. You can read the diary here.

Since Stanton was head of the investigation and running the country under martial law at the time, one wonders why the K.G.C. was never mentioned in the trial, why Booth was executed instead of being brought in for interrogation, and why 15 pages of Booth’s diary disappeared immediately after Stanton got control of the manuscript. If I had to make a guess, I’d say the Civil War was fomented by British interests that also led the abolitionist movement from their headquarters in Boston. After the war, certain business interests wanted to pillage the South for exploitation, something Lincoln was strongly opposed to. Killing Lincoln was not in the best interests of the South, but was in the interest of certain business alliances. After Lincoln’s death, Stanton engaged in a vicious power struggle with President Andrew Johnson, someone who’d also been slated for assassination but survived.

There’s another thread to this saga that involves Freemasonry. Albert Pike, the most powerful Mason in America, was from Boston, but moved to Arkansas during the war, where he became a general for the Confederacy and organized Native Americans to conduct terror raids on Northern civilians. Just as British and American officers met frequently during the Revolutionary War in Masonic lodges (and sometimes on the eve of a battle), it’s safe to assume Masons on both sides of the Civil War held discussions in their temples throughout the warAlbertPikeYounger

Freemasonry has always been a refuge for spies. Immediately after Lincoln’s death, Pike went from hiding out in Canada, to being awarded full masonic honors inside the White House by the deeply masonic President Andrew Johnson, who pardoned Pike for his war crimes and may have helped erect a statue to him in Washington. Consider that Stanton was a devoted Freemason. Also consider the one man brought in to testify against Mary Surratt was a clerk who worked for Stanton at the Department of War.

Consider Stanton placed John Frederick Parker as the sole bodyguard for Lincoln that fateful night even though Lincoln had been having nightmares about being assassinated for three nights running and expressed these fears to Stanton and requested additional protection. Since Parker had a reputation for visiting brothels, sleeping on duty and drinking heavily, he seems like an odd choice. Parker abandoned his post and went across the street for drink in a tavern where Booth was also imbibing before Booth strolled across the street to execute the undefended President.

Consider that Stanton closed every bridge out of Washington immediately after the assassination, save one, which turned out to be the bridge used by Booth and his confederates. Consider the public telegraph lines in Washington went dead for two hours immediately after the assassination, leaving Stanton in control of the only working telegraph line in and out of the city. Although all the films show Booth jumping to the stage and yelling “sic semper Tyrannis,” in his final diary entries Booth claimed to have shouted those words immediately before firing the shot.


Final note: When conducting operations on a national/international levels, secret societies can manifest dialectical systems. By founding terror groups, they capture centers of gravity and place gatekeepers at key strategic positions in the coming conflict. Just as the abolitionist movement had deep pockets plus the insane John Brown on their side, a complimentary and similarly violent pro-slavery movement may have been manifested so the coming clash of cultures could be more effectively mined for profit. William Quantrill would be the insane terrorist on the flip side. I sense this may be the way secret societies have played their games for centuries.






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US general Douglas Macarthur and Emperor Hirohito. September 1945

“And the corruption, it would appear, runs deep indeed. The Seagraves claim that huge quantities of war loot remain to this day stashed in the vaults of well-known international financial institutions such as Citibank, Chase, Hongkong & Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC), and Union Banque Suisse (UBS). One of the key characters in the Seagraves’ book is a mysterious man of many identies named Severino Garcia Diaz Santa–known to his friends simply as “Santy”–revealed in the new edition to have been an agent of the Vatican secret services. Involved in the torture of Major Kojima, General Yamashita’s driver in the last year of the war, Santy was able to extract the locations of more than a dozen Golden Lily treasure vaults in the mountains north of Manila, two of which were immediately and easily opened. In the decades following the end of the war, Santy played the role of gatekeeper in an organization referred to as “The Umbrella,” set up to move gold from the Philippines “to 176 bank accounts in 42 countries,” according to a letter written in 1991 by former Justice Department attorney Robert Ackerman [1,p.227]. Hounded relentlessly by Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos, Santy became worried and took steps to protect himself, hiring a bookkeeper named Tarciana Rodriguez who he put “in charge of billions in cash, bullion, gold certificates, stocks and other assets all over the world.” When he finally slipped into a state of deep alcoholic depression leading to his death in 1974, “The Man With No Name,” as he was often called, left behind a fortune conservatively estimated at $50 billion to his fourteen heirs [1,p.150]. The largest single account, stored at Union Banque Suisse, is claimed to contain 20,000 metric tons of gold bullion alone, this according to original UBS documents reproduced on the Gold Warriors CDs [1,p.222-223].

Attempts to recover this fortune brought the legitimate heirs to Santy’s estate face-to-face with the seedy underbelly of corporate finance. Santy’s common-law wife Luz Rambano is reported to have met with a vice-president of UBS in Geneva, who told her, according to an American friend who was with her at the time, that “he wouldn’t recommend her trying to claim this account while she was in Switzerland, because before the bank or even the government of Switzerland would agree to allow her to take what this account represented, they would not be beyond having her killed first” [1,p.224].

Similar results were reported in encounters with other banks. Faced with stonewalling from HSBC and Sanwa Bank, efforts eventually turned to Citibank, and in December 1990 Tarciana travelled to Manhatten to meet with then-CEO John Reed. “According to Santy’s own records and documents Tarciana had with her,” the Seagraves write, “Citibank held 4,700 metric tons of gold bullion belonging to Santy’s Estate.” Employing a well-known technique, Reed reportedly responded to the claims by hiring a phalanx of lawyers and moving Santy’s assets offshore, to Cititrust in the Bahamas. The case was later taken up by attorney Mel Belli, who charged that “Reed and Citibank have systematically sold and are selling said gold bullion to buyers and converting the sale proceeds to their own use” [1,p. 230]. Belli, however, died in 1996 with the case still pending. Reed was later ousted by Citibank under allegations of money laundering.”

Golden Lily Operation: the Treasure of Japanese Criminals
by Denis Boneau   / 8 November 2004

In 1895, Queen Min was burned alive by a group of murderers of the Black Ocean Society, an ultranationalist group led by legendary Mitsuru Toyama. The operation, aimed at destabilizing the Korean government, constituted one of the elements of the conquering strategy used by the Japanese secret service designed in conjunction with the yakusas of Toyama. The assassination of the Queen gave rise to the “incident” that justified the progressive invasion against Korea. In 1905, the country became a protectorate of Japan. The ultranationalist societies began the looting operations while the underworld chiefs took on key positions. With the support of the imperial government, Ryohei Uchida, chief of the Black Dragon Society, and Toyama’s right hand, put together the militias in charge of extorting money from Korean rich families. In 1910, Korea was fully annexed. The military chief, general Yamagata, commissioned Terauchi to undertake the secret police activities, which had initially been established by Black Dragon. The kempeitai carefully arranged the plundering of the territory, with the support of the Toyama and Uchida’s militias. Officially, Japan attempted to Project Southeast Asia from the Western settlers, by founding a “sphere of joint prosperity”. The Japanese imperial dynasty really oversaw the ongoing plundering of the country, stealing gold and masterpieces (the valued celadon porcelain), destroying the cultural heritage (Buddhism temples) with the clear intention of doing away with the Korean identity.

Ryoichi Sasakawa

A similar system was established in Manchuria, under the command of Nobusuke Kishi and the yakusa societies. The annexed territory enabled Japan to control the access by sea to the commercial ports in the North of China. The puppet government was then under the domain of the tairiki ronin -officers, chief warriors, drug traffickers… Entrepreneurial Yakusas made up true private armies to plunder territories on behalf of the Emperor, or they formed an alliance with the Chinese patrons of the Green Band to control the distribution networks of opium and its by-products. Ryoichi Sasakawa [1] and Yoshio Kodama [2] therefore amassed great fortunes, which at the end of the war, would allow them to finance the creation of the almighty Liberal Democratic Party (LDP).

The chiefs of these groups of criminals with expeditious methods were Nobusuke Kishi and his clan, which included general Hideki Tojo (chief of the secret policy and future Prime Minister of the Government during the war years), Hoshino Naoki (chief of the opium monopoly), Matsuoka Yosuke (chairman of Mantsetsu corporation) and Aikawa Gisuke (Nissan leader). They planned the looting operations with the complicity of the Emperor.

JPEG - 5.8 kb Yoshio Kodama

They founded the Manchues Heavy Industry Company, an organization that coordinated the development of the industry and concentrated the booty that the army and the yakusas had looted from the local population, through the use of different methods such as demanding ransoms, extorting money, robbing banks… The conquering obsession upset Western leaders, who feared that Japan might interfere in their own colonies and concessions. In 1936, in the midst of the full plundering of Korea, the Japanese strategists hesitated between two choices. One of the tactics was to take control of Siberia, a territory with abundant natural resources, to set up a security area in front of the Soviet Union, main rival in the region. This “anticommunist” strategy had the merit of pleasing one part of the West elite. For this purpose, the Ambassador to London, Yoshida, attempted to set up an alliance with the British, resorting to the support of the Cliveden group. Several ultraconservatives in the United States, like former President, Herbert Hoover, or the Nazi pilot, Charles Lindberg, and officers close to general MacArthur, favored an understanding with the imperial dynasty. Prince Chichibu, Hirohito’s brother, traveled to London in 1936 to arrange a potential Anglo-Japanese alliance. It was likely that the possibility to create an anticommunist front seduced the British diplomats; however the advance of the Japanese troops in Asia threatened the European powers’ colonies. Very soon, Chichibu was deprived of every means of negotiation.

The army was totally out of control in China. In 1937, several officers were plotting the Marco Polo incident in China, which resulted in the invasion of the country by the Japanese troops with the unofficial support of the Emperor. Prince Chichibu declined the already obsolete idea of setting up and Anglo-Japanese alliance and flew to Nuremberg where chancellor Adolph Hitler was participating in a meeting [3]. When President Franklin D. Roosevelt declared that he wanted to put an end to the conquering «obsession» of Japan, the invading army was getting ready to commit an unprecedented massacre ordered by an imperial prince. As a matter of fact, prince Konoe, a “moderate” Prime Minister, commissioned prince Asaka to head the Nankin army. The latter ordered his troops not to leave any prisoner in the city. For days, the soldiers followed his orders very strictly. Tens of thousands of Chinese were murdered under horrifying circumstances in the face of many West witnesses. The soldiers «used» men as mannequin to learn how to use the bayonet and officers as a way to practice the beheading rituals. Women and girls were victims of collective rapes in front of their families. In the mean time, princes Chichibu and Takeda made sure that the booty of the plundering ended up in the hands of the imperial dynasty. The experts audited every banking document while the secret police tortured every suspect of having information on Nankin’s gold and fortune [4]. Japanese prince and general Chichibu, Hirohito’s brother, visited a colony of boy-scouts.

To make sure that the army did not unnecessarily squander the plundered products, Hirohito set up the Golden Lily, an organization that gathered experts in money extortion (accountants, finance professionals …), yakusa chiefs and powerful industrialists under the command of imperial princes, the only people the Emperor fully trusts in. Prince Chichibu was in charge of supervising the entire group [5]. In 1941, the regime of Philippe Petain authorized Japan to occupy the North of Indochina. Prince Konoe favored a “negotiated peace” but he was unable to convince Hirohito and he resigned. The Emperor, determined to declare war, appointed general Tojo in his place, who was one of the men of the Kishi clan that masterminded the systematic plundering of Manchuria.

The “surprise attack” [6] against Pearl Harbor was a sign that unleashed a Japanese offensive in Southeast Asia. Japan invaded Thailand, Sumatra, Burma, occupied Guam and Hong Kong. Japan also expelled general Macarthur from his feud in the Philippines. The new annexed territories were systematically plundered by the kempetai. Prince Chichibu established the general headquarters of Golden Lily in Singapore where the entire booty was sent to be inventoried by specialists. In the Philippines, the western banks were the main target of the Golden Lily experts who took possession of the Philippines treasure to benefit Yokohama Specie Bank, whose main shareholder was Hirohito himself, and the Bank of Taiwan, another state bank. Part of the gold was used to finance the war. Swiss, Portuguese, Argentinean and Chilean banks were in charge of the laundering. The fortune stolen by the kempetai and the Golden Lily agents was taken to Singapore, and then to Manila to be eventually sent to Japan. After the battle of Midway, the balance of military forces in Southeast Asia moved towards the United States. Japan lost control of sea routes. Hirohito and the imperial princes began to think of a potential defeat of the Empire. From then on, Golden Lily operation, headed by Chichibu, who officially underwent a tuberculosis treatment in the base of mount Fuji, consisted of saving the war booty stuck in Manila. Firstly, Chichibu had used the hospital-ships to transport the gold that was later on put in underground deposits built in the Japanese mountains.

In 1943, that solution was not applicable any more since the United States was in a position to impose an effective maritime blockade. The fortune began to pile up in the Manila harbor. Prince Chichibu then put together a group of engineers specialized in the construction of underground nets, and began to conceal the booty in underground hiding places. In Manila, he used the underground systems of Intramurom, an old Spanish city that provided great storage capacity. A gallery that allowed a discreet transfer of goods connected the harbor directly with Intramuro. Chichibu selected historical places, like churches, universities, and a whole series of places where the bombing risk was minimal. Prince Takeda used caves and supervised the construction of tunnel nets in the North of Manila. Specialists set up big quantities of ingenious and terribly effective traps: bombs, cyanide capsules, water and sand traps… Another prince, Takahito Asaka, son of the perpetrator of the Nankin slaughter, and general Yamashita, hero of the Singapore actions were sent to the Philippines to face the imminent US attack and participate in burial operations. Engineers and slaves were constantly buried alive.

When MacArthur began the reconquering of the Philippines, the princes try to quickly hide what they had not been able to bury yet. Ships loaded with gold were sunken with their crews on board. After Japan’s defeat that finished its occupation with the slaughter of civilians in Manila, the princes escaped in submarines. The American secret services knew about the Golden Lily operation since 1945. John Ballinger, an agent, disguised as a fisherman could observe the unloading of boxes full of gold that had been carried in a hospital-ship. MacArthur arrested its rival Yamashita and entrusted one of his own agents the mission to interrogate major Kojima – the Japanese general’s driver.

Severino García Santa Romana obtained numerous pieces of information on Yamashita’s itineraries and, in this way, he was able to locate several hiding places. “Santy” became then the guardian of “Yamashita’s treasure”. He remained at the beginning under the command of MacArthur until the enigmatic Edward Landsale [7], former-agent of the OSS, who had recently joined the G-2 services of general Willoughby [8], took command of the operations.

After submitting the issue to president Truman, they decided that the recovered booty would be used to raise money to create a fund against communism, known as Black Eagle. The project, conceived by an advisor to Roosevelt, consisted of using the gold stolen by Germany, Italy and Japan to finance pro-American governments and, consequently, to manipulate, with the use of money, elections in the core of several “democracies” threatened by the “red danger”. With the help of Robert Anderson, a money laundering specialist, the gold that Santy had recovered was dispersed in 170 bank accounts, opened in 42 countries. The banking network of the CIA allowed therefore to hide again the fortune stolen from Southeast Asia and to keep the gold prices at a convenient level for the economic interests of the United States [9].

The booty seized by the American authorities was deposited in three different secret funds at the beginning. The Yotsuya fund financed the most unthinkable activities of MacArthur’s right hand, the boss of G-2, Charles Willoughby, admirer of general Franco and of the fascist police methods. The second fund, baptized with the name of Joseph Keenan, prosecutor at the Tokyo trial, Japanese equivalent to the Nuremberg trial, had a very precise function: to bribe witnesses to exonerate the members of the imperial dynasty, who had become MacArthur’s allies in the struggle against communism. The Tokyo trial was a true farce that ended up in the hanging of a handful of scapegoats. Prince Asaka, perpetrator of the Nankin massacres, was not even summoned while general Matsui, accused of a crime in which he didn’t participate, was sentenced to hang. Yamashita, general MacArthur’s great rival, had the same fate; he was condemned for slaughtering civilians in Manila. General Tojo was found as main guilty and forced to take on responsibility for the war, instead of Emperor Hirohito.

The most strategic fund was certainly the M-Fund dedicated to the financing of the fight to prevent communists or social democrats from taking over power in Japan. After the war, an ephemeral socialist government was quickly discredited -thanks to the financing of the M-Fund- by the United States’ favorite, Shigeru Yoshida. This fund was also used to finance an official history about the Japanese defeat. That was the way in which Yoshio Kodama published his memoirs “I was defeated”. The book, financed by the CIA with the M-Fund, was good to exonerate the future Japanese strong men, ultranationalist supported by general MacArthur, such as Ryoichi Sasakawa and Nobusuke Kishi. The peace treaty is signed in 1951. Article 14 provided that Japan didn’t have the necessary resources to indemnify its victims. The existence of the Golden Lily, which turned into the Black Eagle, had to remain a secret.

After 1952, a board, headed by CIA members and the Japanese secret services, became responsible for the M-Fund. Thanks to the fund, Nobusuke Kishi, head of the Manchuria plundering and former Minister of Tojo’s war government, won the election. Eisenhower’s administration liked the extremely anticommunist war criminal. The M-Fund financed the election of several prime ministers, such as Kakuei Tanaka, Noboru Takeshita, Yasuhiro Nakasone and Miyazawa Kichii. Tanaka, to whom Nixon had promised the exclusive administration of the M-Fund, resorted very often to finance elections and dirty maneuvers. Part of the Golden Lily money was invested in Japan and was squandered by those who decided who was to be the future prime minister selected from the Liberal Democratic Party membership, which monopolized the power during 50 years.

The Marcos clan, new guardian of the Golden Lily
Many hiding places could not be controlled by Santy and MacArthur’s services in the Philippines. Marcos, Washington’s turbulent protégés, won the 1965 elections thanks to the “Yamashita’s gold”. Since the 1960’s, Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos tried to contact Santy, the legendary guardian of the Golden Lily. Knowing that Santy had numerous bank accounts, they thought that some of them might have been forgotten by the CIA and they wanted to control them. When Santy died, in 1974, Marcos became the new unofficial guardian of the Golden Lily and cooperated this way with American and Japanese teams. To locate the hiding places, the dictator used Ben Valmores, a Philippine peasant that had been prince Takeda’s servant. Marcos was able to accumulate important quantities of gold but the search operations were very complicated. The easiest thing was to ally with Japanese people that knew the location of the hiding places. Marcos resorted to Ryoichi Sasakawa, a war criminal and Mussolini’s admirer who then became part -after the Japanese defeat- of the restricted circle of new masters on Japan. Sasakawa was the ideal partner. He discreetly withdrew the gold deposited in the Lubang island and probably carried out the money laundering through his Philippine-Japanese Mutual Aid Association. At the beginning, Washington supported Marcos and Sasakawa’s anticommunist activities, and turned a blind eye [10].

However, Marcos sought to work on his own and recruited two partners, a clairvoyant who claimed to have located, thanks to his gifts, the remains of the Nachi ship, and a specialist in metallurgy. Robert Curtis would be in charge of “sanctifying the gold”, in other words, he would have to find the means to adapt the booty so that it could be used in the world market without attracting people’s attention. To finance his facilities, Curtis resorted to John Birch Society, an extreme right group specialized in anticommunist operations, which had colonel Lawrence Bunker among its members. Bunker, in his capacity as former-collaborator of MacArthur, was aware of the existence of the Golden Lily.

When president Reagan planned to return to the gold standard, he asked Marcos to share part of his reserves. The dictator’s greed would be his misfortune. Paul Wolfowitz (in his capacity as Undersecretary of State) ordered the American secret services to kidnap Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos and they were sent to exile in Hawaii [11]. Marcos’s reserves would have been sent to United States.

Many people still continue to covet the booty of the Golden Lily, the result of more than 50 years of systematic plundering of Southeast Asia by Japan. According to Sterling and Peggy Seagrave, since March 2001 the Bush administration (with Paul Wolfowitz as Secretary of Defense) has sent commands to the Philippines to recover part of Marcos’ reserves and to supervise new excavations. The control of what remains of “Yamashita’s gold” is still an extremely important objective for those interested in accepting the full disclosure of the existence of the Golden Lily. The access to the files on the Black Eagle fund was under the strictest control by the CIA.

[1] «Sasakawa, a respected war criminal», by Denis Boneau, Voltaire, January 21, 2005
[2] Kodama was commissioned to take control of drug trafficking operations in China. In this respect, he established an alliance with the Green Band and gradually became its main opium supplier. He established the Kodama kikan in Shanghai, a real machine to turn illegal drugs into gold and ships goods of the Golden Lily. «Yoshio Kodama, the yakusa of the CIA», by Denis Boneau, Voltaire, January 22, 2005
[3] Sterling and Peggy Seagrave, La dynastie du Yamoto, Histoire secrète de la dynastie impériale, Éditions Michalon, 1999, France
[4] They obtained this way several millions of tons of gold in Nankin. The kempeitai had systematically controlled the gold and jewels, as well as the furniture and mirrors of people, while the Golden Lily experts found the bank leaders
[5] Sterling y Peggy Seagrave, Golden Lily Operation, Le scandaleux secret de la guerre du Pacifique ou comment les États-Unis ont utilisé le trésor de guerre japonais pour financer la Guerre froide. (Golden Lily Operation, the secret scandal in the Pacific war or how the USA had used the Japanese war treasure to finance the Cold War), Éditions Michalon, 2002. Original title: Gold warriors
[6] Recently declassified documents have proved that the United States had predicted the attack and had prepared for it a year before. Cf «Remember Pearl Harbor!» text in French, by Paul Labarique, Voltaire, March 17, 2004
[7] General Edward Landsale was taken as a reference by the United States army in the area of psychological war
[8] The G-2 of general Willoughby equals in Asia what used to be the X-2 of James Jesus Angleton in Europe. Both counterespionage units were used to recruit and retrain enemy agents that would make up the stay-behind network to fight against communism. Cf. «Stay behind: the US destabilization and interference networks» by Thierry Meyssan, Voltaire, July 20, 2001
[9] Let us remember that the Bretton Woods agreement, signed after the end of World War Two, were the foundations to reorganize the world economy based on the dollar-gold convertibility
[10] «La Liga Anticomunista Mundial, internacional del crimen» by Thierry Meyssan, Voltaire, January 20, 2005
[11] Gaston Sigur, Paul Wolfowitz and Richard Armitage led the operation through which the Marcos couple was taken by force out of the Philippines.

The Looting of Asia
by Chalmers Johnson /  20 November 2003
Review of Gold Warriors: America’s Secret Recovery of Yamashita’s Gold
by Sterling Seagrave and Peggy Seagrave

It may be pointless to try to establish which World War Two Axis aggressor, Germany or Japan, was the more brutal to the peoples it victimised. The Germans killed six million Jews and 20 million Russians; the Japanese slaughtered as many as 30 million Filipinos, Malays, Vietnamese, Cambodians, Indonesians and Burmese, at least 23 million of them ethnic Chinese. Both nations looted the countries they conquered on a monumental scale, though Japan plundered more, over a longer period, than the Nazis. Both conquerors enslaved millions and exploited them as forced labourers – and, in the case of the Japanese, as prostitutes for front-line troops. If you were a Nazi prisoner of war from Britain, America, Australia, New Zealand or Canada (but not Russia) you faced a 4 per cent chance of not surviving the war; the death rate for Allied POWs held by the Japanese was nearly 30 per cent.

The real differences between the two nations, however, developed in the years and decades after 1945. Survivors and relatives of victims of the Holocaust have worked for almost six decades to win compensation from German corporations for slave labour and to regain possession of works of art stolen from their homes and offices. Litigation continues against Swiss banks that hid much of the Nazi loot. As recently as July 2001, the Austrian Government began to disburse some $300 million out of an endowment of almost $500 million to more than 100,000 former slave labourers. The German Government has long recognised that, in order to re-establish relations of mutual respect with the countries it pillaged, serious gestures towards restitution are necessary. It has so far paid more than $45 billion in compensation and reparations. Japan, on the other hand, has given its victims a mere $3 billion, while giving its own nationals around $400 billion in compensation for war losses.

One reason for these differences is that victims of the Nazis have been politically influential in the US and Britain, forcing their Governments to put pressure on Germany, whereas Japan’s victims live in countries that for most of the postwar period were torn by revolution, anticolonial movements and civil wars. This has begun to change with the rise of Sino-American activists. The success of Iris Chang’s The Rape of Nanking (1997), a book the Japanese establishment did everything in its power to impugn, heralded the emergence of this group.

More significant, however, are differences in US Government policies towards the two countries. From the moment of Germany’s defeat, the United States was active in apprehending war criminals, denazifying German society, and collecting and protecting archives of the Nazi regime, all of which have by now been declassified. By contrast, from the moment of Japan’s defeat, the US Government sought to exonerate the Emperor and his relatives from any responsibility for the war. By 1948, it was seeking to restore the wartime ruling class to positions of power (Japan’s wartime minister of munitions, Nobusuke Kishi, for example, was prime minister from 1957 to 1960). The US keeps many of its archives concerned with postwar Japan highly classified, in violation of its own laws.

Most important, John Foster Dulles, President Truman’s special envoy to Japan charged with ending the occupation, wrote the peace treaty of 1951 in such a way that most former POWs and civilian victims of Japan are prevented from obtaining any form of compensation from either the Japanese Government or private Japanese corporations who profited from their slave labour. He did so in perfect secrecy and forced the other Allies to accept his draft (except for China and Russia, which did not sign). Article 14(b) of the treaty, signed at San Francisco on 8 September 1951, specifies: ‘Except as otherwise provided in the present Treaty, the Allied Powers waive all reparations claims of the Allied Powers, other claims of the Allied Powers and their nationals arising out of any actions taken by Japan and its nationals in the course of the prosecution of the war, and claims of the Allied Powers for direct military costs of occupation.’ As recently as 25 September 2001, three former American Ambassadors to Japan – Thomas Foley, a former Speaker of the House of Representatives, Michael Armacost, the president of the Brookings Institution, and Walter Mondale, Carter’s Vice-President – wrote a joint letter to the Washington Post denouncing Congress for its willingness even to think about helping former American slave labourers get around the treaty.

Why do these attitudes protecting and excusing Japan persist? Why has the US pursued such divergent policies towards postwar Germany and Japan? Why was the peace treaty written in the way it was? Many reasons have been offered over the years, including that Japan was too poor to pay, that these policies were necessary to keep postwar Japan from ‘going Communist’, and that the Emperor and Japanese people had been misled into war by a cabal of insane militarists, all of whom the occupation had eliminated from positions of responsibility. The explanation offered in the Seagraves’ book is considerably more sinister. It concerns what the United States did with Japan’s loot once it discovered how much of it there was, the form it took, and how little influence its original owners had.

Almost as soon as the war was over, American forces began to discover stupendous caches of Japanese war treasure. General MacArthur, in charge of the occupation, reported finding ‘great hoards of gold, silver, precious stones, foreign postage stamps, engraving plates and . . . currency not legal in Japan’. His officials arrested the underworld boss Yoshio Kodama, who had worked in China during the war, selling opium and supervising the collection and shipment to Japan of industrial metals such as tungsten, titanium and platinum. Japan was by far the largest opium producer in Asia throughout the first half of the 20th century, initially in its colony of Korea and then in Manchuria, which it seized in 1931. Kodama supplied heroin and liquor to occupied China in return for gold coins, jewellery and objets d’art, which the Japanese melted down into ingots.

Kodama returned to Japan after the surrender immensely rich. Before going to prison he transferred part of his booty to the conservative politicians Ichiro Hatoyama and Ichiro Kono, who used the proceeds to finance the newly created Liberal Party, precursor of the party that has ruled Japan almost uninterruptedly since 1949. When Kodama was released from prison, also in 1949, he went to work for the CIA and later became the chief agent in Japan for the Lockheed Aircraft Company, bribing and blackmailing politicians to buy the Lockheed F-104 fighter and the L-1011 airbus. With his stolen wealth, underworld ties and history as a supporter of militarism, Kodama became one of the godfathers of pro-American single-party rule in Japan.

He was not alone in his war-profiteering. One of the Seagraves’ more controversial contentions is that the looting of Asia took place under the supervision of the Imperial household. This contradicts the American fiction that the Emperor was a pacifist and a mere figurehead observer of the war. The Seagraves convincingly argue that after Japan’s full-scale invasion of China on 7 July 1937, Emperor Hirohito appointed one of his brothers, Prince Chichibu, to head a secret organisation called kin no yuri (‘Golden Lily’) whose function was to ensure that contraband was properly accounted for and not diverted by military officers or other insiders, such as Kodama, for their own enrichment. Putting an Imperial prince in charge was a guarantee that everyone, even the most senior commanders, would follow orders and that the Emperor personally would become immensely rich.

The Emperor also posted Prince Tsuneyoshi Takeda, a first cousin, to the staff of the Kwantung Army in Manchuria and later as his personal liaison officer to the Saigon headquarters of General Count Hisaichi Terauchi, to supervise looting and ensure that the proceeds were shipped to Japan in areas under Terauchi’s control. Although assigned to Saigon, Takeda worked almost exclusively in the Philippines as second in command to Chichibu. Hirohito named Prince Yasuhiko Asaka, his uncle, to be deputy commander of the Central China Area Army, in which capacity he commanded the final assault on Nanking, the Chinese capital, between 2 December and 6 December 1937, and allegedly gave the order to ‘kill all captives’. The Japanese removed some 6000 tonnes of gold from Chiang Kai-shek’s treasury and the homes and offices of the leaders of Nationalist China. All three princes were graduates of the military academy and all three survived the war; Chichibu died in 1953 of tuberculosis but the other two lived to a very ripe old age.

With the Japanese capture in the winter and spring of 1941-42 of all of South-East Asia, including the Philippines and Indonesia, the work of Golden Lily increased many times over. In addition to the monetary assets of the Dutch, British, French and Americans in their respective colonies, Golden Lily operatives absconded with as much of the wealth of the overseas Chinese populations as they could find, tore gilt from Buddhist temples, stole solid gold Buddhas from Burma, sold opium to the local populations and collected gemstones from anyone who had any. The gold was melted down into ingots at a big Japanese-run smelter in Ipoh, Malaya and marked with its degree of purity and weight. Chichibu and his staff inventoried all this plunder and put it aboard boats, usually disguised as hospital ships, bound for Japan. There was no overland route to Korea, the closest point on the mainland to Japan, until very briefly in late 1944.

A lot of gold and gems were lost as a result of American submarine warfare; and by early 1943, it was no longer possible for the Japanese to break through the Allied blockade of the main islands except by submarine. Chichibu therefore shifted his headquarters from Singapore to Manila and ordered all the shipments to head for Philippine ports. He and his staff reasoned that the war would end with a negotiated settlement, and they believed (or imagined) that the Americans could be persuaded to transfer the Philippines to Japan in return for an end to the war. From 1942, Chichibu supervised the building of 175 ‘Imperial’ storage sites to hide the treasure until after the war was over. Slave labourers and POWs dug tunnels and caves and then were invariably buried alive, often along with Japanese officers and soldiers, when the sites were sealed to keep their locations secret. Each cache was booby-trapped, and the few extant Golden Lily maps are elaborately encoded to hide exact location, depth, air vents (if any) and types of booby trap (e.g. large aerial bombs, sand traps, poison gases). In Manila itself, Golden Lily constructed treasure caverns in the dungeon of the old Spanish Fort Santiago, within the former American military headquarters (Fort McKinley, now Fort Bonifacio), and under the cathedral, all places the Japanese rightly assumed the Americans would not bomb. As the war came to an end, Chichibu and Takeda escaped back to Japan by submarine.

Soon after the liberation of the Philippines, American special agents began to discover a few of the hidden gold repositories. The key figure was a Filipino American born in Luzon in either 1901 or 1907 named Severino Garcia Diaz Santa Romana (and several other aliases), who in the mid-1940s worked for MacArthur’s chief intelligence officer, General Willoughby. As a commando behind the lines in the Philippines he had once witnessed the unloading of heavy boxes from a Japanese ship, their being placed in a tunnel, and the entrance being dynamited shut. He had already suspected what was going on. After the war, Santa Romana was joined in Manila by Captain Edward Lansdale of the OSS, the CIA’s predecessor. Lansdale later became one of America’s most notorious Cold Warriors, manipulating governments and armies in the Philippines and French Indo-China. He retired as a major-general in the Air Force.

Together, Santa Romana and Lansdale tortured the driver of General Tomoyuki Yamashita, Japan’s last commander in the Philippines, forcing him to divulge the places where he had driven Yamashita in the last months of the war. Using hand-picked troops from the US Army’s Corps of Engineers, these two opened about a dozen Golden Lily sites in the high valleys north of Manila. They were astonished to find stacks of gold ingots higher than their heads and reported this to their superiors. Lansdale was sent to Tokyo to brief MacArthur and Willoughby, and they, in turn, ordered Lansdale to Washington to report to Truman’s national security aide, Clark Clifford. As a result, Robert Anderson, on the staff of the Secretary of War, Henry Stimson, returned to Tokyo with Lansdale and, according to the Seagraves, then flew secretly with MacArthur to the Philippines, where they personally inspected several caverns. They concluded that what had been found in Luzon, combined with the caches the Occupation had uncovered in Japan, amounted to several billion dollars’ worth of war booty.

Back in Washington, it was decided at the highest levels, presumably by Truman, to keep these discoveries secret and to funnel the money into various off-the-books slush funds to finance the clandestine activities of the CIA. One reason, it has been alleged, was to maintain the price of gold and the system of fixed currency exchange rates based on gold, which had been decided at Bretton Woods in 1944. Just like the South African diamond cartel, Washington’s plotters feared what would happen if this much ‘new’ gold was suddenly injected into world markets. They also realised that exposure of the Imperial household’s role in the looting of Asia would destroy their by now carefully constructed cover story of the Emperor as a peaceful marine biologist. Washington concluded that even though Japan, or at least the Emperor, had ample funds to pay compensation to Allied POWs, because of the other deceptions, the peace treaty would have to be written in such a way that Japan’s wealth would remain secret. The treaty therefore gave up all claims for compensation on behalf of American POWs. To keep the Santa Romana-Lansdale recoveries secret, MacArthur also decided to get rid of Yamashita, who had accompanied Chichibu on many site closings. After a hastily put-together court martial for war crimes, Yamashita was hanged on 23 February 1946.

On orders from Washington, Lansdale supervised the recovery of several Golden Lily vaults, inventoried the bullion, and had it trucked to warehouses at the US Naval base at Subic Bay or the Air Force base at Clark Field. According to the Seagraves, two members of Stimson’s staff, together with financial experts from the newly formed CIA, instructed Santa Romana in how to deposit the gold in 176 reliable banks in 42 different countries. These deposits were made in his own name or in one of his numerous aliases in order to keep the identity of the true owners secret. Once the gold was in their vaults, the banks would issue certificates that are even more negotiable than money, being backed by gold itself. With this seemingly inexhaustible source of cash, the CIA set up slush funds to influence politics in Japan, Greece, Italy, Britain and many other places around the world. For example, money from what was called the ‘M-Fund’ (named after Major-General William Marquat of MacArthur’s staff) was secretly employed to pay for Japan’s initial rearmament after the outbreak of the Korean War, since the Japanese Diet itself refused to appropriate money for the purpose. The various uses to which these funds were put over the years, among them helping to finance the Nicaraguan counter-revolutionaries in their attacks on the elected government in Managua (the Iran-Contra scandal of the Reagan Presidency), would require another volume. Suffice it to say that virtually everyone known to have been involved with the secret CIA slush funds derived from Yamashita’s gold has had their career ruined.

Santa Romana died in 1974, leaving several wills, including a final holographic testament, naming Tarciana Rodriguez, a Filipina who was the official treasurer of his various companies, and Luz Rambano, his common-law wife, as his main heirs. They set out to recover the gold since, after all, it was in his name in various banks and they had custody of all the account books, secret code names, amounts, records of interest paid, and other official documents proving its existence. Using the famous San Francisco attorney Melvin Belli as her representative, Rambano actually filed a suit against John Reed, then CEO of Citibank in New York and today president of the New York Stock Exchange, charging him with ‘wrongful conversion’: that is, selling $20 billion of Santa Romana’s gold and converting the proceeds to his own use. The Seagraves vividly describe the extraordinary meetings that took place between Rambano and Reed, with phalanxes of lawyers on both sides, in Citibank’s boardroom in New York. Reed apparently ordered the gold moved to Cititrust in the Bahamas.

Santa Romana and Lansdale by no means discovered all the Golden Lily sites. Over the years, a cottage industry developed of treasure hunters digging holes in obscure places in Luzon, often claiming they were looking for the remains of family or lovers. A regular feature of life in the village of Bambang, in the Cagayan Valley, Nueva Viscaya province – one of the places where Takeda was most active – is the appearance of elderly Japanese ‘tourists’ bearing not the usual bag of golf clubs but sophisticated metal detectors. This area of the Philippines is one where guerrillas of the New People’s Army are active, and it has no major tourist attractions. Many local Filipinos have gone into business as professional ‘pointers’, telling gullible visitors, for a fee, where to search, before skipping town.

Twenty years after Santa Romana stopped searching in 1947, a secondary – and quite violent – hunt for gold began, carried out by Ferdinand Marcos. Marcos recovered at least $14 billion in gold – $6 billion from the sunken Japanese cruiser Nachi in Manila Bay, and $8 billion from the tunnel known as ‘Teresa 2’, 38 miles south of Manila in Rizal province. During 2001, Philippine politics were rocked when the former solicitor-general Francisco Chavez alleged that Irene Marcos-Araneta, Marcos’s youngest daughter, maintained an account worth $13.2 billion in Switzerland. Its existence apparently came to light when she tried to move it from the Union Bank of Switzerland to Deutsche Bank in Düsseldorf. Marcos, who personally supervised the opening of at least six sites and routinely used his thugs to steal any treasure that local peasants happened to find, died in exile in Honolulu in 1989. In 1998, the Supreme Court of Hawaii affirmed a judgment against his estate for the astonishing sum of $1.4 billion in favour of a Filipino who retrieved a solid gold Buddha and then had it stolen from him by Marcos, who also had him tortured for protesting.

The key to Marcos’s discoveries was the services of one Robert Curtis, a Nevada chemist, metallurgist and mining engineer, whom Marcos hired to resmelt his gold, to bring it up to current international requirements for purity so that it could be marketed internationally. Curtis proved to be the only person who could decipher the few Golden Lily maps that survived, in the possession of Takeda’s former valet, a Filipino youth from Bambang. The Seagraves describe very thoroughly Curtis’s activities, including his narrow escape from death on the orders of Marcos’s henchman General Ver, after he struck gold at Teresa 2.

The authors seem to sense that they might have a credibility problem, and have therefore taken the unusual step of making available two CDs containing more than 900 megabytes of documents, maps and photographs assembled in the course of their research. The CDs can be ordered from their website ( These are invaluable, particularly in what they reveal of the US Government’s vicious sting operation against a former American deputy Attorney General, Norbert Schlei. Schlei represented about sixty Japanese people on whom the Japanese Government had unloaded huge promissory notes in an attempt to hide the M-Fund after the former Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka was convicted of bribery. The Government persisted in calling these notes forgeries (thus engaging in another form of illegal conversion) and Schlei’s career was ruined. Gold Warriors is easily the best guide available to the scandal of ‘Yamashita’s gold’, and the authors play fair with their readers by supplying them with massive amounts of their raw research materials.

The Seagraves end their ‘authors’ note’ with these words: ‘As a precaution, should anything odd happen, we have arranged for this book and all its documentation to be put up on the Internet at a number of sites. If we are murdered, readers will have no difficulty figuring out who “they” are.’ Unfortunately, the list of potential killers from this book alone would include at least several thousand generals, spies, bankers, politicians, lawyers, treasure hunters and thieves from half a dozen countries. So I wish the Seagraves a long life. Meanwhile, a substantial portion of the treasure stolen by the Japanese from East Asian countries remains buried in the Philippines.

Reviews of Gold Warriors, by Sterling & Peggy Seagrave
Click below to open full length pdfs of the following reviews:

The Seagraves have uncovered one of the biggest secrets of the twentieth century. --Iris Chang, author of The Rape of Nanking

from Michael Collins Piper, American Free Press

“This, of course, means that Yamashita’s gold -which amounts to certainly hundreds of billions in value, probably trillions- was a real source of power and influence for Marcos and, in the end, proved not only to be a source of his rise to power, but, ultimately, his undoing. The Seagraves relate – echoeing The Spotlight – that when Marcos demanded a higher-than-usual commission for lending a portion of his gold horde to the Reagan administration in order to prop up a Reagan scheme to manipulate the world gold market, this was the beginning of Marcos’ downfall. As a consequence, then U.S. CIA-Director William Casey set in motion the riots and protests that began creating trouble for Marcos in the streets of Manila. Although Casey flew to Manila, along with U.S. Treasury Secretary Donald Regen, CIA economist Professor Higdon and an attorney, Lawrence Kreager, to give Marcos a “last chance,” the Philippine nationalist would not buckle. Higdon told Marcos that he would be out of power “in two weeks” for not appeasing the international banking houses and their agents in the American administration. The Seagraves report that a source close to Marcos advised them that Marcos was then approached by an emissary from David Rockefeller’s Trilateral Commission asking Marcos to contribute $54 billion in gold bullion to a so-called “global development fund.” Marcos’ response was to consign the Trilateral demand into a waste basket. In no short order, of course, Marcos was forced from office and flown to Hawaii with his family where they were held effectively under house arrest. Marcos and his wife told many people-including reporters from The Spotlight-that they had never expected to be taken to Hawaii, that they had, instead, expected to be flown to safety from Manila to Marco’s home island of Ilocos Norte. In the meantime, billions of dollars worth of gold certificates that the Marcos had taken with them were confiscated by the U.S. government. But when the Marcoses demanded the return of the certificates, the U.S. said the certificates were “fake.” In other words, the Reagan administration casually and ruthlessly stole billions from the Marcos, at the same time helping perpetuate the media myth that the Marcos family had stolen billions from their own nation’s treasury. (And it should be noted, for the historical record, that one of the key behind-the-scenes Reagan administration operatives plotting against Marcos was one Paul Wolfowitz, now internationally known today as one of the prime movers behind the American effort to depose Saddam Hussein-probably no coincidence considering Saddam’s refusal, like Marcos, to surrender his nation’s sovereignty to international banking interests.)”

from Robert D. Steele, review posted at

“Major players include Presidents Truman, Eisenhower, and Nixon, both Allen and John Foster Dulles, Douglas MacArthur, John McCloy, and the famous unconventional warrior Edward Lansdale. What we learn from this book is that those writing about “blowback” (the consequences of unwise US actions) have barely scratched the surface. What we learn is that rather than truly seeking to help the Japanese, Chinese, and other looted nations recover in the aftermath of WWII, the most senior leaders of the US government, no doubt with the best of intentions, actually conspired with Nazi bankers and the Japanese imperial family to create a Black Eagle Trust controlled by a very select hand-picked cabal in Washington. Originally used to fight communism, the Black Eagle Trust, according to the authors, quickly became a global slush fund used to bribe national leaders and manipulate elections around the world. This fund remains in existence today, making the Swiss Holocaust funds seem like loose-change. According to the authors, major banks are “addicted” to the funds and would face collapse if public investigations resulted in a forced return of this gold and related certificates to the rightful owners. The authors have produced a magnificent work of both scholarship and investigative journalism. They document the extent of Japanese looting of Korea (beginning in 1895) and China as well as the other countries in the “co-prosperity sphere.” They document the manner in which Japan hid most of the gold in the Philippines (some in Indonesia), and were forced to leave it there from 1943 onwards, when US submarine interdiction became too effective to risk shipments homeward. I found the level of detail in this book to be quite gripping. The ingenious nature of the Japanese burial sites, with caverns below the more obvious tunnels, with sea-water protection, with maps created in reverse–and the in-bred cruelty of the Japanese, thinking nothing of burying all of the US and other national slave labor *and the Japanese engineers* alive as the final stage of protecting the looted treasure, leave one stunned.

The authors document the central role played by Lansdale in recognizing the opportunity and then briefing MacArthur and then President Truman. According to the authors, the architects of the Black Eagle Trust were three advisors to President’s Roosevelt’s Secretary of War, Henry Stimson: John McCloy (later head of the World Bank), Robert Lovett (later Secretary of Defense), and Robert Anderson (later Secretary of the Treasury). They made the case to Roosevelt, and presumably to Truman after Roosevelt died, that it would be impractical to return the looted gold to the rightful owners, in part because many of the looted countries were now under Soviet control. The authors, who conducted many interviews in support of the work, including interviews of former CIA deputy director Ray Cline, who they say was involved with Lansdale and the gold in the 1940’s and remained involved with the black gold through the 1980’s, provide copies of documents showing the redirection of the looted gold to 176 bank accounts in 42 countries. The gold was then used to support the creation of gold bearer certificates that were in turned used to bribe the most senior officials around the world.

The authors tell a shocking tale of how quickly MacArthur chose to collaborate with the very leadership of Japan that declared war on the USA and was responsible for genocide and looting in Asia on a scale rarely achieved by anyone else. Bringing the story up to date, the authors show how prior attempts to investigate the Black Eagle Trust have led to the ruin of individuals such as Norbert Schlei, at one time deputy attorney general to Presidents Kennedy and Johnson. While I have no direct knowledge and cannot be certain myself, I believe the authors have provided a sufficiently compelling case to warrant an international investigation concurrently with a General Accounting Office investigation to be chartered by Congress with unlimited supeona powers specifically directed against classified personalities and archives. If this story is true, and I personally think that it is, then the US government, in active collusion with the very people the American people fought to defeat in WWII, has been guilty of fraud and depravity on a global scale and against the best interests of both the American people, and the against the rightful owners of the looted gold and other treasures.

from Douglas Valentine, author of The Hotel Tacloban & The Phoenix Program

“The Americans viewed this money as a War prize, and every American president from Harry Truman to George W. Bush has used the slush funds for various purposes. Truman, through a number of his top aides close to the Harrimans and the Rockefellers, set up the Black Eagle Trust Fund to fight communism. General MacArthur set up the Yotsuya Fund to finance Japan’s yakuza underworld, and one of his aides set up the M-Fund to help reconstruct Japan and turn it into an economic powerhouse. Eisenhower used the M-Fund to help create Japan’s Liberal Democratic Party in 1956, and in 1960, Vice President Richard Nixon turned over M-Fund over to Japan’s Prime Minister, Kishi Nobosuke, in return for kickbacks Nixon used to help finance his presidential campaign. Carter, Reagan, Clinton and both Bushes were complicit, using Golden Lily slush fund money to buy elections in nations all around the world. George W. got into the act in March 2001, sending Navy SEAL commandos to the Philippines to recover a portion of General Yamashita’s gold. Bush was privately in the market to buy some of the bullion that was being recovered. His representative was William S. Parish, his nominee as ambassador to Great Britain, and the manager of his blind trust.

The Seagraves conclude their exciting and excellent book by taking us down the Money Trail, and explaining, in layman’s terms, how the Gold Warriors have been able to cover their tracks. Emperor Hirohito, for example, worked directly with
Pope Pius XII to launder money through the Vatican bank. In another instance, Japan’s Ministry of Finance produced gold certificates that were slightly different than ordinary Japanese bonds. The Seagraves interview persons defrauded in this scam, and other scams involving the Union Bank of Switzerland and Citibank. Without descending into convoluted legalese, the Seagraves describe the devious means bankers have used to conceal the vast hordes of Nazi and Japanese gold in their possession. The Seagraves do this primarily by examining multi-million-dollar lawsuits filed by Roxas, Curtis, and Santa Romana’s heirs against Citibank, the US government, and Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos. In this way the Seagraves reveal how the banks use complex accounting methods, or claim that gold certificates are fake, or simply move gold to offshore accounts to conceal it. In every case the US government assists the banks by stonewalling, refusing to investigate, or ignoring Freedom of Information Act requests.

In one noteworthy case, attorney W.R. “Cotton” Jones walked into the Swiss Bank Corporation in New York City and asked the bank to authenticate a $25 million certificate of deposit issued by the Bank and bearing the Federal Reserve seal. Cotton was quickly arrested by the Secret Service and his certificates were confiscated. As Cotton rhetorically asks, how can a Swiss bank have a federal agency intervene on its behalf and confiscate personal possessions? What right does the Secret Service have to arrest, interrogate, intimidate, and threaten anyone on a Swiss bank’s behalf, without due process of law? The answer is obvious: the banks that maintain the US government’s stolen gold are above the law, and if they stonewall long enough, anyone trying to sue them will eventually fade away. The Seagraves asked the Treasury Department, Defense Department, and the CIA for records on Yamashita’s gold in 1987, but were told the records were exempt from release. During the 1990s, the records mysteriously went missing. Other records were destroyed in what the Seagraves caustically call “history laundering.”


While the size of the Bormann treasure is not known with any accuracy, it undoubtedly is the largest Nazi treasure that has not been recovered. The only other treasure remaining from WWII that could rival it in size is the Golden Lily treasure collected for the Japanese Emperor. While the Nazi treasure has been the subject of numerous searches and research, the Japanese treasure has been largely left unexplored. While the Nazis appointed a special unit of the SS, Devisenschutzkommando to take charge of the looting of Europe, the Japanese likewise had a special unit. Whereas, the Nazi unit employed Frenchmen to locate gold and currency on a ten percent commission, the unit was plagued by individuals seeking to enrich themselves rather than the Third Reich and much gold was siphoned off into private treasures. Seeking to avoid a similar problem, Hirohito appointed Prince Takeda Tsuneoshi as chief financial officer of the Kwantung Army. Several princes were involved with the Golden Lily operation. After the Japanese invaded China in 1937, the Golden Lily operation conducted a parallel operation. Loot was amassed and trucked to Korea for shipment to the Japanese homeland.77

In 1939, the Japanese invaders suffered a stinging defeat at Nomonhan after a boarder clash with the Soviets. It’s worth noting that this was the first battle in which the Japanese Unit 731 employed biological warfare, using typhoid bacteria. The experiment was a failure. In 1941, Roosevelt signed a secret agreement with Britain and the Netherlands agreeing to go to their defense if their colonies in Southeast Asia were attacked. In 1940, Prince Chichibu was appointed to head the Golden Lily. He and Takeda traveled throughout China and Southeast Asia, overseeing the looting and shipping the treasure back to Japan aboard hospital ships. By 1943, the United States submarine blockade of the home islands became effective. This forced Prince Chichibu to move his Golden Lily headquarters from Singapore to Luzon. He spent the next two and half years inventorying and hiding the treasure in a series of vaults, tunnels, and caves. The treasure was hidden in a total of 172 sites. The hope was Japan could arrange a cease-fire and be allowed to hang onto the Philippines as a territory and then recover the treasure at their leisure.

Besides using the Philippines to hide the treasure in the last year of the war, Japan hid gold at sea by scuttling ships. The cruiser, Nachii was torpedoed by a submarine in Manila Bay. The submarine then machined gunned any survivors to ensure secrecy. President Marcos recovered the gold from the Nachii in the 1970s. In 1997, A Japanese television crew filmed the recovery of 1,800 gold bars worth $150 million. The Igorot hill people had discovered the gold. After the death of Prince Chichibu in the 1950s, a member of the Imperial family confided that the Golden Lily had amassed over $100 billion in treasure, much of which was hidden in the Philippines. He also confirmed that the prince had escaped from MacArthur’s advancing forces by submarine.

The hospital ship, Tenno Maru, arrived at Yoksuka Naval Base loaded with causalities from the Philippines and 2,000 metric tons of gold. Days later it moved to Maizura Naval Base, where additional treasure was put aboard. The ship then sailed at night. Its crew was murdered and the ship sunk in the bay. In a secret operation in 1987, Japan recovered the gold. Another hospital ship, Awa Maru was sunk mistakenly off the coast of China in April 1945. Aboard the ship was 40 metric tons of gold, 12 metric tons of platinum, 150,000 carats of diamonds, a large quantity of titanium, and other strategic materials. Old mines in the Japanese mountains served as repositories for portions of the Golden Lily treasure. Near the Olympic Village of Nagano, a tunnel complex was dug by Korean slave labors. A ten kilometer tunnel completed the complex. This complex was used to hide portions of the Golden Lily.

The Allies had made it clear that they intended to prosecute Japanese war criminals in the same manner as Nuremberg. However, unlike Germany, only a few generals and admirals were ever convicted. The archives in Japan had vanished. The United States took exclusive control over Japan, unlike the four zones in Germany. President Truman appointed MacArthur as the Supreme Commander. For six years after the surrender of Japan, MacArthur held virtually unchallenged power. As Supreme Commander he ignored the Far Eastern commission of eleven nations. MacArthur had the power to reform the country, but instead left it in the same hands that bombed Pearl Harbor. The only reform implemented was the successful land reform that went ahead before it could be blocked. Washington D.C. was at least partially responsible for the lack of reforms. The liberals in Washington wanted reform while the conservatives blocked all reform efforts. The conservative Democrats and the Republicans held Congress until the 1946 election when the Republicans regained a majority of seats, putting Congress solidly in the conservative camp.

There were great plans for reforms, such as the dissolution of the zaibatsu, conglomerates, banking reforms, and a new constitution as well as restitution payments to nations ravaged by Japan. None of these plans were ever implemented. MacArthur killed those plans and was soon backing away from punishment of war criminals. To protect the ruling elite, MacArthur soon banned all labor demonstrations and canceled the right of labor unions to strike.

Just as the denazification of Germany had been sabotaged, the democratization of Japan was sabotaged by MacArthur and his staff with additional help coming from the former ambassador to Japan, Joseph Grew, and former President Herbert Hoover. Grew had been ambassador to Japan appointed to the post by Hoover in 1932 and was acting secretary of state in 1945. His wife was a grand niece of Commodore Perry and her mother was a Cabot. Grew was from the top society of Boston and was deaf to those beneath his stature in society. Grew’s family had longtime ties to Asia. The Grews had been bankers, who underwrote the opium clipper ships of the 1800s.

Grew had started sabotaging the democratization of Japan during the war. During the war Grew held private talks with Japan’s ambassador to Switzerland and promised that the United States would not prosecute Hirohito and that he would be allowed to keep his throne. Such a promise was adamantly opposed by both the Roosevelt and the Truman administrations, which both called for unconditional surrender and prosecution of war criminals.

Grew however, knew he had the backing of some of the most powerful figures in American politics and high finance. He left it up to Bonner Fellers to see to it. Fellers was a former OSS agent attached to MacArthur’s command who had been stationed in Cairo in 1941. While stationed in Cairo to observe the British operations in North Africa, he transmitted reports back to his superiors using the black code. The Italians had broken the black code and within minutes of Feller’s transmissions, Rommel knew the positions of British forces and battleplan. After being transferred to the states for a brief period Fellers was attached to MacArthur’s command.

The groundwork for sabotaging the peace in Japan had been laid out by Grew and Hoover. Fellers was friends with both and had acquired a reputation of being an expert on Japan. He had been stationed in the Philippines in the 1930s and had made frequent trips to Japan during that time. Hoover used Fellers during the occupation of Japan to convey ideas to MacArthur. MacArthur used Fellers in turn to push his presidential ambitions to Hoover and the Republican hierarchy.

As president, Hoover showed little concern about foreign affairs. However, after his defeat and as the war clouds descended on Europe, he took an active interest in foreign affairs. In 1938, Hoover met with Hitler. Even at this late date, Hoover still would have aligned the country with Hitler to defeat Stalin. He was also a friend with Japanese royalty from his time spent in China. Hoover wanted Japan to be a conservative Pacific outpost strongly opposed to communism. He wanted Japan to be allied with the US and to act as an Asian base for the Republican Party and its Wall Street cronies. Once he could cleanse the emperor of any guilt over the war, he could cleanse the government and Japanese factories would be humming again.

Hoover’s and Grew’s plan to cleanse the emperor and the Japanese government of any war crimes had to be kept secret. There were still far too many, bitter war memories from Pearl Harbor, the Bataan death march, and Japanese forced labor camps. As late as 1945, Congress had voted that Hirohito should be tried as a war criminal. Fellers and another Grew protégé, Max Bishop, engineered the cleansing process. First, to discover the true extent of Hirohito’s guilt, they questioned Japanese officials and indicted war criminals in secret. Once all the facts had been assembled, they sanitized each incriminating bit of information by suborning witnesses. Before the trials could begin, several adverse witnesses conveniently died. American POWs on their way home were forced by US intelligence to sign documents forbidding them to talk about the harsh treatment they received at the hands of the Japanese.

While MacArthur was quietly trying to stop the trials, he received a blunt reminder from the Joint Chiefs to get serious about bringing the Emperor to trial. Despite such orders, MacArthur would not permit a trial of Hirohito. MacArthur even put Hirohito on the public relations circuit, showing him shaking hands and portraying him as a great pacifist. Behind the scenes, MacArthur and Fellers were castigating anyone not falling in line with the opinion that the war was the fault of the military.

MacArthur’s list of war criminals was remarkably short. Of 300 cases investigated only 28 appeared before the court. Only seven were executed. All of those hung were Choshu and not Satsuma. This may have been a payoff to the royal court from a long-standing feud dating back to the early days of the Meiji Restoration. Even post war maps omitted the name Choshu after renaming the prefecture Yamaguchi.

Chief prosecutor was Joseph Keenan, the eleven-member panel of judges consisted of a judge from each Allied nation. Some of the criminals high on the list were granted pardons arbitrarily. For instance, the British decided not to prosecute a naval officer who ordered the machine gunning of 600 British sailors trying to stay afloat after their ship had been sunk. MacArthur ordered that not a single bit of information about biological warfare and Unit 731 be admitted in the trials.

While Herbert Hoover kept Fellers and MacArthur busy in Japan, nursing MacArthur’s political ambition, he guided Grew stateside. At the end of the war Grew resigned from the State Department and moved to Wall Street, where he became the leading spokesman for the Japan crowd. Grew became the co-chairman of the American Council on Japan (ACJ). The ACJ was a political action committee formed by wealthy conservatives immediately after the war to lobby Washington and to fight any efforts to reform Japan. The ACJ was backed by Newsweek, a newsmagazine founded in 1937 by Averell Harriman. His brother was a director. While Harriman was equally guilty in supplying Hitler before the war, he is normally associated with the Democratic Party. Newsweek’s pro-Japanese stance had his blessing. His role as a leading fundraiser of Democratic causes obviously came at a cost as he was looking out for his financial interests and those of his clients. The magazine hailed the Wall Street vision for Japan. Chief organizers for the AJC were Harry Kern, Newsweek foreign editor, Compton Pakenham, Newsweek’s bureau chief in Tokyo, and James Kauffman, a New York lawyer who served the interest of General Electric, Standard Oil, Ford, National Cash register, Ottis Elevator, and Dillon Reed in Japan.82

Grew’s cochairman at ACJ was another agent of Herbert Hoover, William Castle. Castle was a wealthy plantation owner from Hawaii and a former ambassador to Japan. Ambassador positions at the state department were regarded by the wealthy as their own providence. Grew’s assistant at the ACJ was Eugene Dooman, who was raised in Japan. They regarded their mission to stop any excesses in reforming Japan. Right wing business leaders were careful to denounce cartels and monopolies in principle, but fought vigorously against any effort to break up Japanese conglomerates. They looked toward restoring trade with Japan and saw that Japan was Asia’s only industrial base. Once the financial elite of Japan could be restored to power, the quicker business could resume.

In the summer of 1947, Kauffman visited Tokyo on behalf of Dillon Reed and made a personal assessment of Truman’s plan to break apart the zaibatsu. Truman’s plans were classified secret. However, Undersecretary of Defense William Draper leaked the documents to Newsweek. The reader should recall that William Draper played a prominent role in sabotaging the 4-Ds program in postwar Germany. In December, as the nation was gearing up for the presidential election, Newsweek denounced the overall plan for Japan as costly.

In Congress, the attack was led by Republican Senator William Knowland a wealthy newspaper publisher from California. Knowland claimed the Truman policy on Japan was written by communists, paving the way for Joe McCarthy. Knowland and Congressman Walter Judd a Republican from Minnesota, led the China lobby on Capitol Hill and blamed the loss of China to communism on Truman. Herbert Hoover meanwhile continued to lead MacArthur on about his chances of being nominated for the Republican ticket. MacArthur was particularly sensitive to Newsweek’s charges of communism. Those charges enraged the general and he halted all further implementation of the reform program.

The final deathblow for reform in Japan came early in 1948. In February, William Draper and Percy Johnson, a Wall Street banker, toured Japan to review the policy. Johnston was chairman of Chemical Bank, which had a long time relationship with Mitsui Bank. The outcome was predictable. Of the original list of 325 Japanese companies that were to be broken apart, only 20 remained on the Draper-Johnston list. Not a single Japanese bank would be restructured. The Japanese banks changed their names as a precaution and hid their past.

By 1952, when the occupation ended, all leftists had once again been purged and the conservatives were in control of Japan. The Emperor’s fortune still laid under the waters of Tokyo Bay and in other locations. The first recovery of a portion of the Golden Lily is known as the Santa Romana recovery. In the Philippines during the waning days of the war, Filipino guerillas observed the Japanese transporting heavy bronze cases and hiding them in a cave. An OSS major was with the group that observed the burial. After the treasure was hidden in the cave, the entrance was dynamited shut and concealed. The OSS agent reopened the cave and found the cases to contain gold. Following the war, between 1945 and 1948, the gold was recovered. The operation was known to Wiliam Donovan, MacArthur, Fellers, Edward Langsdale, and Herbert Hoover. Later, Allen Dulles knew of the operation. Donovan and Langsdale were assigned the recovery. No attempt was ever made to return the gold to its rightful heirs. Instead, the gold was deposited in 176 bank accounts in 42 different countries. It became the basis of the CIA off the books financing. This financing was done by issuing gold certificates to influential people, binding them to the CIA. One account in Langsdale’s name in the Geneva branch of Union Banque Suisse contained 20,000 metric tons of gold. The insiders squirreled some of the bullion away for private use. Documents confirm that one of the largest accounts was in the name of MacArthur.

Other documents indicated Herbert Hoover had an account containing $100 million in gold bullion. One can be certain that Hoover’s deep concern over Japan was based on his ability to smell a big payoff in gold from his previous experiences in China and Australia. The large holding of gold by Hoover was confirmed after his death, when his son sought out government approval to dispose of a large sum of gold bullion. The large accounts of MacArthur and Hoover suggest that the cleansing of Hirohito came at a high price.

Edwin Pauley, a rich oilman, had been dispatched to Japan to assess Japan’s ability to pay reparations. Pauly was informed of the $2 billion dollars of gold in Tokyo Bay shortly after his arrival in Japan. Yet, Pauley concluded Japan was in shambles and could not pay its fair share of expenses of the American occupation, let alone to anyone else’s rebuilding efforts. Largely due to Pauley’s assessment, Japan’s bill for reparations came to only one billion dollars. If such a sum had been distributed equally to the next of kin of the 20 million people who died as a result of Japan’s aggression, each would have received the paltry sum of $30. In the immediate post war scramble for reparations, the wealthy in Japan who had profited from the war and hid their profits submitted their own claim for reparations, totaling $5 billion. Many of these claims were paid.

Instead of cash payment to countries, Japan was ordered to provide industrial equipment. Even such token payments were suspended by Washington when the equipment was claimed as collateral for bonds issued before the war by American firms. Two of the largest American firms making such claims were Morgan Bank and Dillon Reed. By 1950, Japan owed Morgan Bank over $600 million in interest, penalties, and principle just for the 1924 earthquake loans. In 1951, Japan arranged for refinancing of the loans through Smith Barney and Guaranty Trust. By 1952, Japan had repaid all prewar investments by American corporations and compensated them for all property damage. While all prewar Japanese bonds held by companies affiliated with the ACJ were repaid, companies not affiliated were not so fortunate. The reader should ponder long and hard how a country so shattered was able to pay off such a colossal debt in such a short time.

The issue of Japan’s compensation is still an issue. In 1998, one month before Prince Akihito’s visit to Britain, Congress passed the following resolution:

“Whereas the government of Germany has formally apologized to the victims of the Holocaust and gone to great lengths to provide financial compensation to the victims and to provide for their needs and recovery; and Whereas by contrast the Government of Japan has refused to fully acknowledge the crimes it committed during World War II and to provide Reparations to its victims: Now, therefore, be it Resolved by the House of Representatives (the Senate concurring), That it is the sense of the Congress that the Government of Japan should.
1.Formally issue a clear and unambiguous apology for the atrocious war crimes committed by the Japanese military during World War II; and:
2. Immediately pay reparations to the victims of those crimes including United States military and civilian prisoners of, people of Guam who were subjected to violence and imprisonment, survivors of the “Rape of Nanking” from December 1937, until February, 1938, and the women who were forced into sexual slavery and known by the Japanese military as “comfort women.”

One intriguing theory that sheds additional light on the fate of the Golden Lily comes from David Guyatt, author and researcher. Guyatt theorizes that the total mined supply of gold has been deliberately understated and that the supply of gold is much larger than the 140,000 tons reported. This additional supply of black gold is controlled by extremely right wing fascists. One reported trader in this market is the son of George Bush. His theory revolves around the year 1954. London Bullion Market was shut down in 1939 at the onset of war. Even before the war, England’s gold reserves were extremely low. The war was an additional drain on those reserves, as evident by the destroyer trade and England’s reliance on the Lend Lease program. As well as the concession of Portugal to accept the pound in trade rather than demand gold. In short, England was walking among the financially dead at the war’s end. However, in 1954, just nine short years from the end of the war, England had apparently acquired enough supply of gold to reopen the bullion market.

The Bilderberg group held its first meeting in 1954. The Bilderberg group was founded by Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands and former officer in the SS. Bernhard had also worked in I.G. Farben’s notorious NW7 group, which served as spies for the Third Reich. The Prince is also associated with the Knights of Templar, through its Dutch variety. Bernhard was appointed to govern the Dutch order in 1954. John Foster Dulles was reported to have been one of the most helpful Americans in establishing the Bilderberg group. Incidentally, in 1954 Dulles testified in favor of a bill designed to return vested enemy assets such as GAF, to their previous owners. From the beginning, the Bilderberg group had several members of the intelligence community associated with it. Sir Colin Gubbins, Britian’s wartime SOE head, was a founding member. Walter Bedell Smith was a co-chairman of the group in the US.

The year 1954 was significant in a number of other ways. A memorandum of agreement between the CIA and the Justice Department that allowed the CIA to police itself was dated February 18, 1954. In effect, it allowed the CIA free reign as the Justice department would turn a blind eye towards matters of national security. Another noteworthy aspect of 1954 was the merger of the Schroder Bank and the Wagg family to form the city based merchant bank, J. Henry Schroder Wagg & Co. Wackenhut Corporation, a corporation with deep ties to both the military and intelligence communities, was formed in 1954.

However, more significant was that 1954 was the year the U.S. had forecasted that the Soviet Union would have thermo nuclear weapons. With their greater numerical strength, a massive military build up had been launched, costing taxpayers billions, while the corporations reaped fat profits. It was also the year in which General James Doolittle concluded his study of the CIA and reached the conclusion that the agency was not as adept as the KGB. The MK-Ultra, the mind control program of the CIA, began in 1954.

Perhaps the most noteworthy of all events in 1954 was a strange audit of the gold supply in Fort Knox. Every bar, totaling almost three quarters of a million, was weighed singularly. Moreover, every hundredth bar was drilled and a small sample taken to be assayed. No single assayer was used so the extent of the audit could not be deduced. No reasonable explanation for such a detailed and secret audit has been uncovered.

A partial list of significant events of 1954 follows: After learning about the Japanese treasures in November 1953, Marcos starts digging for gold in the Philippines. Fred Meuser, Lockheed’s European Director, transfers to Geneva to live, this event figures in later. The Four-Power Treaty is signed in Paris to terminate the occupation regime in Germany. Germany joins NATO. Geneva Accord reached regarding peace between France and Indochina. Additionally, 1954 was the year that Edward Landsdale arrived in Vietnam to take over the opium trade. The Israeli Mossad and US CIA formed an intelligence “partnership.” Nazi gold was moved from Argentina to the Philippines in 1954 after the Mosad determined it was located in Argentina.

Guyatt provides a more extensive list of events revolving around 1954 than provided above. However, the essential events to support his theory have been covered and we can now begin to look more directly at the Golden Lily and its recovery. Research done by the Seagraves has found 172 treasure sites of the Golden Lily in the Philippines. One of those sites audited by Japanese accountants contained a staggering 777 billion yen or the equivalent of $194 billion. Estimates for all 172 sites comes to a staggering $100 trillion. Over the years, numerous right wing groups have aided and abetted the CIA by laundering plundered items from the Golden Lily.

One of the latest recoveries, which raised scandalous headlines in 1994 involving former UN Secretary General Kurt Waldheim, was part of an operation involving the CIA and former General John Singlaub. The operation, dubbed Nippon Star, had recovered in excess of 500 metric tons of gold recovered from the Philippines. Singlaub, who is very active in right wing extremist groups and political intrigue in Central and South America, headed the team. Singlaub was part of the military/CIA intelligence complex before retiring. The team consisted of Gunther Russbacher, a CIA agent, five other Americans, and a handful of Filipinos. The recovered gold contained Nazi gold and gold stole from China by the Japanese. Kurt Waldheim served as the intermediary between the Austrian National Bank and Philippine President Ramos.

What is intriguing about this sale, besides the extraordinary size, is this operation was also known to the Knights of Malta. A document from the Knights of Malta entitled the Landsdale Project references 500 MT. Moreover, it refers to a meeting of Washington people to discuss the ramifications of another Landsdale project. While a number of former intelligence officials and military leaders are known members of the Knights of Malta, their knowledge of a secret CIA operation raises further questions. Who else was in on this operation? What were the ramifications of the second Landsdale Project? Was the Vatican a part of this operation? For now, those questions and others will have to go unanswered.

The stated reason for the transfer to Austria was to provide backing for the Euro dollar. However, the presence of Waldheim as an intermediary only raises questions of connections to Nazis and fascism. Even before Waldheim took his office in the UN, the CIA and military intelligence must have known about his former background as an SS officer. It is inconceivable that the US did not know of his background, since he was in an automatic arrest category following the war.

One of the earliest documents attesting to Marcos’s recovering the treasure of the Golden Lily is a gold certificate dated 1956. This was before Marcos had become a member of the senate. Swiss Bank Corporation (Schweizerische Bank GESELLSCHAFT M.H.C.) issued the certificate for a deposit of 7,120 metric tons of gold. Marcos collaborated with Japanese-American investigator Minoru Fukimatsu. Together they interviewed over 300 witnesses and somehow accessed secret Japanese government archives in determining the locations of the treasure.

Another gold certificate was issued on January 17, 1963 by Unions Bank of Switzerland. The certificate was issued to Adnan Kasogi. Adnan Kasogi was actually Adnan Khashoggi, a Marcos crony. Khashoggi’s name was misspelled, but that is often the case in these certificates. Khashoggi was a Lockheed agent and partner of Yoshio Kodama. Kodama was a Japanese rear admiral during the war and also a member of the Japanese Yakuza crime clan. Kodama was charged with shipping the loot to the Philippines during the war. This gold certificate was issued just before Lockheed paid the first known bribe to Prince Bernhard. Lockheed was being used by the CIA to funnel money worldwide. Moreover, Lockheed’s European Sales Director, Dutchman Fred Meuser, had been a member of Prince Bernhard’s wartime air force squadron. An additional member of the Lockheed bribe team was CIA officer Nicholas Deak. Deak had founded a money brokering firm that was used to funnel money to Kodama. Deak’s company later merged with Lionel C. Perera, who founded the money firm of Perera, Manfra & Brookes. Perera was attached to the Chief of Military Government Finance Office at the Third Army’s headquarters in Germany at war’s end, where he interviewed Colonel Rauch. Rauch was the SS colonel responsible for hiding the Reich Bank gold reserves.

With so many figures involved directly with both the Nazi and the Japanese treasures, such an event as the Lockheed bribery cannot be dismissed as mere happenstance. However, the intrigue does not stop there. Marcos, Kodama, and Singlaub were all members of the World Anti-Communist League, a right wing extremist group populated with known war criminals and fascists. Under the Reagan administration, the World Anti-Communist League was granted tax-exempt status. That raises the possibility that the World Anti-Communist League was being used as a front for the CIA. Moreover, the intrigue continues. Guyatt goes on to claim that a letter from Henry Kissinger was sent to Marcos on Trilateral notepaper. Kissinger demanded that Marcos sell “63,321 tons of gold to 2000 US and European banks admittedly controlled by the Trilateral.” The letter was dated February 21, 1986. Marcos refused and was overthrown as a result of his refusal. Imelda Marcos, however, chose to sell the gold to avoid criminal charges, and the gold was transferred aboard the US Eisenhower to the United States.

Additional evidence of Marco’s recovering the Golden Lily treasure comes from the Filipino newspaper, The Inquirer. In 1998 the paper published an article entitled “Soldiers of Fortune.” The article revealed that all members of the 16th Infantry Battalion had signed a joint affidavit declaring that, together with members of the 51st Engineering Brigade, they had recovered 60,000 metric tons of gold from thirty sites between 1973 and 1985. Both units operated in strict secrecy under Marcos’ henchman Fabian Ver.

Whether Guyatt’s theory of a secret gold treaty being reached in 1954 is correct or not, it is obvious from his findings and those of the Seagraves that considerable treasure has been recovered from the Golden Lily, ending up in the hands of those involved in intelligence and right wing causes. Was this gold put to private use or the use of the CIA? It’s most likely that a portion was skimmed for private use while the bulk of the remainder was used to fund clandestine CIA operations. It is interesting to note that those connected with the secret recoveries: Herbert Hoover, MacArthur, Allen Dulles, and others were the very ones that worked the hardest in derailing the reform of Japan and Nazi Germany. Their sole objective was to reestablish the cartels and get on with business as usual, and to hell with war crimes. Moreover, it seems certain that a large portion of the Nazi treasure and the Golden Lily was used in rebuilding Germany and Japan with the explicit approval of the right wing in America.

While the largest portions of the Nazi hoard and the Golden Lily remains shrouded under a curtain of mystery and controversy a good deal is known about smaller caches that have been recovered. Until recently, little was known about America’s acquisition of treasures from the war. Much mystery still remains and undoubtedly more caches will surface with additional time. Although Congress passed legislation requiring the return to Germany of much of this material, the bulk of it remains stored in the American archives and private collections. The legislation has been supported by court rulings. Only after Clinton authorized Eizenstat to reach a settlement on unclaimed assets has the New York Federal Reserve admitted to holding two tons of Nazi gold. There has been little effort to return the war booty.

Aftermath: Martin Bormann and the Fourth Reich, by Ladislas Farago
by Benno Weiser Varon  /  04.01.75
Review of Aftermath: Martin Bormann and the Fourth Reich, by Ladislas Farago

Aftermath deals with the thousands of Nazi war criminals who have found asylum—or at least a refuge—in South America since the end of World War II. They are for the most part living well, under their own or assumed names, and have by now gotten over the fright induced by the abduction of Adolf Eichmann in 1961. Among them, according to the author, is the notorious Martin Bormann, Rudolf Hess’s successor, who as Reichsleiter could sign orders to the Nazi leadership in Hitler’s name, and who was sentenced to death in absentia at Nuremberg. Farago claims actually to have seen Bormann in February 1974—“not sick but in an advanced state of senility”—in a remote Redemptorist convent located high in the mountains of Bolivia.

Whether or not the reader accepts this claim, he is likely to find Farago’s case for Bormann alive more convincing, and certainly better documented, than the case for his death, based on the alleged discovery several years ago of a human skull and bones beneath the paving stones of a Berlin street. Authorities of the State of Hesse announced that the Invalidenstrasse remains were those of Bormann, come to light some twenty-seven years after his death: their identification was founded, among other sources, on the testimony of a court pathologist who had no credentials whatsoever as a forensic anthropologist, and on a dental chart drawn from memory by Bormann’s dentist, since deceased. Neither medical charts nor X-rays were available during these proceedings which were launched, by an odd coincidence, only a few days after publication in the London Daily Express of a series of articles by Farago claiming that both Bormann and the infamous Dr. Mengele of Auschwitz were still alive. When it was pointed out in connection with the dental sketch that a three-tooth bridge was missing, a second “dig” was undertaken and the three missing teeth obligingly came to light. How convincing this evidence was may be gauged from the fact that the criminal court of Frankfurt later refused to accept it, as did Bormann’s seven children.

Farago’s case, on the other hand, if not definitive, is certainly a good deal more plausible. According to Farago, Bormann was seen walking alongside a tank in Berlin on May 2, 1945, and three weeks later was recognized by his former driver on a street in Munich. In June 1945 a German journalist described meeting Bormann on a train heading for Denmark, a claim borne out years later when Werner Heyde, awaiting trial in jail as chief of the Reich’s euthanasia program, confessed in 1963 to having hidden Bormann after the war in the Danish castle of Benno Weiser Varon has been the Ambassador of Israel to a number of Latin American countries. Graasten. In 1948 Bormann was spotted in Bolzano by the widow of his Bavarian physician, a recognition which, we are told, was instantaneous, unmistakable, and mutual, and following which Bormann panicked and fled. Like other Nazi bigwigs, Bormann was trailed by the federal police from the day of his arrival in Argentina, and Farago provides photostats from his various dossiers along with the names of three physicians who described treating him in 1959, 1968, and 1972.

The Eichmann trial provided further evidence that, as of 1961 at least, Bormann was still alive. A police search of Eichmann’s home shortly after his capture produced three letters from Bormann. Eichmann himself spoke of Bormann during his trial as of a living person, and Eichmann’s lawyer, Dr. Robert Servatius, said on August 14, 1961, that if Eichmann was the principal culprit in the Final Solution, “Himmler had no reason to kill himself [and] Bormann can come out of hiding.” In addition, a police search of the home of Friedrich Schwend, in Lima, Peru, who during the war printed fake pound sterling notes to undermine the British currency, produced an address book in which Bormann and all his aliases and addresses were listed.

Beyond that, the official spokesman of the Holy See, Professor Federico Alessandrini, has acknowledged that “Bormann was probably one of the beneficiaries” of the Vatican’s “help for the helpless,” and the Auxiliary Bishop of Munich, Johann Neuhaeusler, dropped the “probably” and conceded point-blank that Catholic refugee organizations had been instrumental in helping Bormann escape.

Indeed, Farago’s revelations about Bormann are considerably less important than his revelations about the part played by the Vatican in the escape of an estimated 50,000 Nazis after the war. Other books have treated this subject, but Aftermath breaks new ground with its in-depth study of the central figure behind this rescue operation, the German Catholic Bishop Alois Hudal. Hudal’s influence in German Church circles dated from his longstanding friendship with Pope Pius XII, whom he met in Rome in 1924 when the latter, then Eugenio Pacelli, was Papal Nuncio. Later, Pacelli became Secretary of State for the Holy See, and obtained for Hudal the Bishopric of Aela, making him “the senior German-speaking Bishop abroad.”

Hudal put this position to good use. As early as 1933, be began “explaining” Nazism to audiences outside Germany, welcoming the 700 members of Rome’s German colony, for example, at a Nazi May Day celebration, with the words: “We German Catholics greet the New German Reich, founded on loyalty to Christ and the fatherland.” In 1935, Hudal published a laudatory book, The Foundations of National Socialism, and in 1943 it was Hudal again who was asked by the Pope to intercede with the German commandant of Rome in the matter of the planned arrest of Italian Jews. Hudal presented the case in strictly political rather than humanitarian terms, “in the interest of the good relations . . . between the Vatican and the German high command,” and because he “feared” that “otherwise the Pope [would] have to make an open stand.” But the German commandant knew better. Although, as Ambassador von Weizsaecker reported to Berlin, “the event had taken place practically under the windows of the Pope,” the Pontiff remained silent.

From 1944 on, Hudal found a new friend in the person of the supervisor of the refugee bureau of the Vatican, Monsignor Giovanni Montini, who is today Pope Paul VI. One of the functions of the refugee bureau was to issue “identity certificates,” patterned on the Nansen passes, with no questions asked as to the true identity of their bearers, ‘in the name of Christian charity’ and as a matter of “Christian love of fellow men.” According to Farago, however, Hudal also obtained from Montini, with the Pope’s explicit permission, a limited number of regular Vatican passports for “important” Nazis, among them Bormann, who assumed clerical disguise in order to qualify as bona-fide Vatican citizens. Hudal knew that it was too late to save the Nazi regime. But he, too, saw in every Nazi he rescued a potential frontline fighter in the struggle against “godless Marxism.”

The effectiveness of the Vatican rescue operation may be gauged by the grateful words Farago cites from a speech in 1970 by Colonel Hans Ulrich Rudel, all-time ace of the German Luftwaffe and founder of the rescue organization Kameradenwerk: “One may otherwise view Catholicism as one wishes. But what during those years the Church, especially certain towering personalities, . . . undertook to save the best of our nation . . . must never be forgotten! . . . With its own tremendous resources, the Church helped many of us to go overseas. In this manner, in quiet and secrecy, the demented victor’s mad craving for revenge and retribution could be effectively countermanded.”

Golden Secrets, by Bix Weir

The mainstream gold world wants you to believe that in the entire history of gold mining there has been just over 170,000 tons of gold mined from the ground. On top of that, with all our latest seismic and exploration technology, we have only found about 100,000 tons of underground gold reserves that could be economically mined in the future. For the last 100 years a global effort has been orchestrated to obfuscate, distort, manipulate and confuse the majority of the world’s population as to the supply, demand and value proposition presented by gold.

There are two widely accepted gold statisticians that are followed religiously by the gold mining companies, central banks, governments and investment community:

Above Ground Gold: GFMS, Ltd. is the above ground gold market prognosticator and claims that the total amount of gold ever mined in the world is 170,000 tons (5.4B oz). Historically, this measure rises only as gold is pulled from the ground as reported by global gold mining companies around the world. Any “mystery gold” that suddenly appears on the market in ETF’s, on the LBMA, in the COMEX warehouses or in Government coffers is assumed to come from the unreported gold held by private individuals so that their historical figures never have to change. Adrian Douglas wrote an excellent analysis of what a sham organization GFMS is:

Below Ground Gold: The USGS tallies all the identified and unidentified underground gold reserves reported by governments and mining companies around the world. This figure totals 100,000 tons (3.2B oz) and at the current extraction rate all the remaining gold reserves will be depleted within 40 years.

There is very little 3rd party confirmation and clearly little investigation as to whether or not the historical numbers are correct. These USGS figures measure “publicly announced” gold deposits and never delve into hidden gold deposits that are scattered throughout the world…especially within the United States! There are many secret above ground hoards of gold that the US and the banking establishments do not want the world to know about…and for good reason. Nobody should underestimate the importance of gold in the economic, political and global balance of power.

This September 11 Commission Report gives an excellent insiders view of what goes on in the gold conspiracy world. Pay special attention to Chapters 7 & 8 starting on page 151 for the Gold transactions related to September 11th.

Once you understand the role that gold plays in international espionage it won’t take much of a leap to believe that powerful people around the world want to keep the truth about gold a secret.

Probably the most famous secret gold stash is the “Nazi Gold” that was confiscated from Hitler after WW2. Hitler plundered many European nations of their gold as well as countless individuals. Nobody knows the actual figures but estimates are in the 2,000-50,000 ton range much of which has been used secretly by the military industrial complex and banking cabal to fund their dirty operations. Information and theories on what happened to the Nazi Gold can be found all over the internet…some sites present clearly fanciful theories but others are loaded with facts, figures and motives that are very believable.

Another golden stash of even greater volume is Yamashita’s Gold that was plundered by the Japanese for decades from conquered Asian countries. In order to hide the gold from the US it was hidden in caves in the Philippines but the US found the gold and it has been using it to fund covert operations ever since. This secret gold stash is claimed to be in the 100,000-300,000+ ton range but again nobody really knows. The Sterling and Peggy Seagrave book Gold Warriors gives a detailed account of this gigantic treasure. They also have mountains of documentation backing up their claims of the existence of this secret gold stash and the ramifications are stunning. Listen closely to this interview with Sterling Seagrave and you will understand:

Imagine the implications if this secret gold stash was ever to be made “officially” public. The price of gold would likely crash (although only briefly) and then, once the world understood the reasoning behind hiding this treasure, every country and investor in the world would try to get their hands on some gold. In the aftermath of the market chaos the world would want answers as to where the gold was sold, who got the money, who covered it up, who has it now, who does the gold legally belong to and why is gold so important. All are very, very good questions but the answers would implicate some of the most powerful people in the world. The covert use of Yamashita’s gold has changed the world in the last 70 years and when disclosed to the public it will change it again.

A third is the rumored Chinese Imperial Gold that Benjamin Fulford among others has claimed to have knowledge of. This treasure is so vast that Fulford’s contacts has put the total of above ground physical gold in the world closer to 1,000,000 tons instead of the official number of 170,000 tons. The basic fact is that Eastern countries have coveted gold for centuries and it makes sense that most of the gold ever mined in the world is located somewhere in Asia. Even today, India imports around 33% of all the gold mined in the world and have been the largest gold importer for years.

Maybe the largest unknown store of physical gold in the world is the Vatican Gold. For nearly two thousand years the church has been hoarding gold gained from wars and conquests in the name of God. Throughout the ages people have been shoveling vast amounts of gold into the collection trays every Sunday. The Vatican gold hoard is a closely guarded secret but I believe that it may be the largest collection in history if you take into account all the gold used in the artwork, crosses, trinkets, coins and cups owned by the church. The Vatican is all about privacy, secrecy and power and I guarantee you they know the true value of gold.

These are just some of the above ground Secret Gold Stashes that may be out there. When I add it all up and do some “conspiratorial guess work” I come up with a vast store of gold in the neighborhood of 1.5M tons of above ground gold or 10x the gold supply “accepted” in the mainstream gold markets. Of course this may be very far off…both to the upside or the downside. The point is that the “Accepted” above ground gold numbers are completely dismissing the vast hoards of secret gold that are both rumored to be circulating and/or are very well documented as fact.”


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NATO HQ, Brussels. Some critics have noted a hidden Swastika in the logo

“A revolution from above refers to major political and social changes that are imposed by an elite on the population it dominates. By contrast, the plain term revolution suggests that pressure from below is a major driving force in events, even if other social groups cooperate with — or ultimately capture —the movement. The phrase was coined by the Spanish writer Joaquín Costa in the 19th century.[1] In contrast, a “revolution from below” refers to a grassroots campaign against elites.”

Enlightened Despotism in 18th-century Europe
Stalin‘s Collectivization of agriculture
Soviet Industrialization
White Revolution in Iran
Spain pt1 / Spain pt2

6. The Fabian Model
In Germany, behind the figure of Lassalle there shades off a series of “socialisms” moving in an interesting direction. The so-called Academic Socialists (“Socialists of the chair,” Kathedersozialisten–a current of Establishment academics) looked to Bismarck more openly than Lasalle, but their conception of state-socialism was not in principle alien to his. Only, Lassalle embarked on the risky expedient of calling into being a mass movement from below for the purpose–risky because once in motion it might get out of hand, as indeed it did more than once. Bismarck himself did not hesitate to represent his paternalistic economic policies as a kind of socialism, and books got written about “monarchical socialism,” “Bismarckian state-socialism,” etc. Following further to the right, one comes to the “socialism” of Friedrich List, a proto-Nazi, and to those circles where an anti-capitalist form of anti-Semitism (Dühring, A. Wagner, etc.) lays part of the basis for the movement that called itself socialism under Adolf Hitler.

“It is of my opinion that the swastika is what has been hidden from western consciousness by placing it in plain view, with its image sullied. However in the business world, post WWII, it is business as usual. The swastika in the lobby of JP Chase bank? :lol: Remember also that it has been shown that Hitler and the Third Reich was receiving ‘western financial aid’.” -,

The thread that unites this whole spectrum, through all the differences, is the conception of socialism as equivalent merely to state intervention in economic and social life. “Staat, greif zu!” Lassalle called. “State, take hold of things!”–this is the socialism of the whole lot. This is why Schumpeter is correct in observing that the British equivalent of German state-socialism is–Fabianism, the socialism of Sidney Webb. The Fabians (more accurately, the Webbians) are, in the history of the socialist idea, that modern socialist current which developed in more complete divorcement from Marxism, the one most alien to Marxism. It was almost chemically pure social-democratic reformism unalloyed, particularly before the rise of the mass labor and socialist movement in Britain, which it did not want and did not help to build (despite a common myth to the contrary). It is therefore a very important test, unlike most other reformist currents which paid their tribute to Marxism by adopting some of its language and distorting its substance.

The Fabians, deliberately middle-class in composition and appeal, were not for building any mass movement at all, least of all a Fabian one. They thought of themselves as a small elite of brain-trusters who would permeate the existing institutions of society, influence the real leaders in all spheres Tory or Liberal, and guide social development toward its collectivist goal with the “inevitability of gradualness.” Since their conception of socialism was purely in terms of state intervention (national or municipal), and their theory told them that capitalism itself was being collectivized apace every day and had to move in this direction, their function was simply to hasten the process. The Fabian Society was designed in 1884 to be pilot-fish to a shark: at first the shark was the Liberal Party; but when the permeation of Liberalism failed miserably, and labor finally organized its own class party despite the Fabians, the pilot-fish simply reattached itself.

There is perhaps no other socialist tendency which so systematically and even consciously worked out its theory as a Socialism-from-Above. The nature of this movement was early recognized, though it was later obscured by the merging of Fabianism into the body of Labor reformism. The leading Christian socialist inside the Fabian Society once attacked Webb as “a bureaucratic Collectivist” (perhaps the first use of that term.) Hilaire Belloc’s once-famous book of 1912 on The Servile State was largely triggered by the Webb type whose “collectivist ideal” was basically bureaucratic. G.D.H. Cole reminisced: “The Webb’s in those days, used to be fond of saying that everyone who was active in politics was either an ‘A’ or a ‘B’–an anarchist or a bureaucrat–and that they were ‘B’s’…”

These characterizations scarcely convey the full flavor of the Webbian collectivism that was Fabianism. It was through-and-through managerial, technocratic, elitist, authoritarian, “plannist.” Webb was fond of the term wire-pulling almost as a synonym for politics. A Fabian publication wrote that they wished to be “the Jesuits of Socialism.” The gospel was Order and Efficiency. The people, who should be treated kindly, were fit to be run only by competent experts. Class struggle, revolution and popular turbulence were insanity. In Fabianism and the Empire imperialism was praised and embraced. If ever the socialist movement developed its own bureaucratic collectivism, this was it “It may be thought that Socialism is essentially a movement from below, a class movement,” wrote a Fabian spokesman, Sidney Ball, to disabuse the reader of this idea; but now socialists “approach the problem from the scientific rather than the popular view; they are middle-class theorists,” he boasted, going on to explain that there is “a distinct rupture between the Socialism of the street and the Socialism of the chair.”

The sequel is also known, though often glossed over. While Fabianism as a special tendency petered out into the larger stream of Labor Party reformism by 1918, the leading Fabians themselves went in another direction. Both Sidney and Beatrice Webb as well as Bernard Shaw–the top trio–became principled supporters of Stalinist totalitarianism in the 1930s. Even earlier, Shaw, who thought socialism needed a Superman, had found more than one. In turn he embraced Mussolini and Hitler as benevolent despots to hand “socialism” down to the Yahoos, and he was disappointed only that they did not actually abolish capitalism. In 1931 Shaw disclosed, after a visit to Russia, that the Stalin regime was really Fabianism in practice. The Webbs followed to Moscow, and found God. In their Soviet Communism: a New Civilization, they proved (right out of Moscow’s own documents and Stalin’s own claims, industriously researched) that Russia is the greatest democracy in the world; Stalin is no dictator; equality reigns for all; the one-party dictatorship is needed; the Communist Party is a thoroughly democratic elite bringing civilization to the Slavs and Mongols (but not Englishmen); political democracy has failed in the West anyway, and there is no reason why political parties should survive in our age…

They staunchly supported Stalin through the Moscow purge trials and the Hitler-Stalin Pact without a visible qualm, and died more uncritical pro-Stalinists than can now be found on the Politburo. As Shaw has explained, the Webbs had nothing but scorn for the Russian Revolution itself, but “the Webbs waited until the wreckage and ruin of the change was ended, its mistakes remedied, and the Communist State fairly launched.” That is, they waited until the revolutionary masses had been straitjacketed, and the leaders of the revolution cashiered, the efficient tranquility of dictatorship had settled on the scene, the counter-revolution firmly established; and then they came along to pronounce it the Ideal. Was this really a gigantic misunderstanding, some incomprehensible blunder? Or were they not right in thinking that this indeed was the “socialism” that matched their ideology, give or take a little blood? The swing of Fabianism from middle-class permeation to Stalinism was the swing of a door that was hinged on Socialism-from-Above.

If we look back at the decades just before the turn of the century that launched Fabianism on the world, another figure looms, the antithesis of Webb: the leading personality of revolutionary socialism in that period, the poet and artist William Morris, who became a socialist and a Marxist in his late forties. Morris’ writings on socialism breathe from every pore the spirit of Socialism-from-Below, just as every line of Webb’s is the opposite. This is perhaps clearest in his sweeping attacks on Fabianism (for the right reasons); his dislike of the “Marxism” of the British edition of Lassalle, the dictatorial H.M. Hyndman; his denunciations of state-socialism; and his repugnance at the bureaucratic-collectivist utopia of Bellamy’s Looking Backward. (The last moved him to remark: “If they brigaded me into a regiment of workers, I’d just lie on my back and kick.”

Morris’ socialist writings are pervaded with his emphasis from every side on class struggle from below, in the present; and as for the socialist future, his News from Nowhere was written as the direct antithesis of Bellamy’s book. He warned

that individual men cannot shuffle off the business of life on to the shoulders of an abstraction called the State, but must deal with it in conscious association with each other…Variety of life is as much an aim of true Communism as equality of condition, and…nothing but an union of these two will bring about real freedom.

“Even some Socialists,” he wrote, “are apt to confuse the cooperative machinery towards which modern life is tending with the essence of Socialism itself.” This meant “the danger of the community falling into bureaucracy.” Therefore he expressed fear of a “collectivist bureaucracy” lying ahead. Reacting violently against state-socialism and reformism, he fell backwards into anti-parliamentarism but he did not fall into the anarchist trap:

…people will have to associate in administration, and sometimes there will be differences of opinion…What is to be done? Which party is to give way? Our Anarchist friends say that it must not be carried by a majority; in that case, then, it must be carried by a minority. And why? Is there any divine right in a minority?

This goes to the heart of anarchism far more deeply than the common opinion that the trouble with anarchism is that it is over-idealistic. William Morris versus Sidney Webb: this is one way of summing up the story.

Synarchy: The Hidden Hand Behind the European Union
by Lynn Picknett & Clive Prince

While questions remain about the existence of a single global elite with an agenda that goes beyond simply keeping itself very, very rich, there are certainly groups that want to run the world for quite other reasons. And with the increasing globalisation of political and economic institutions, it has become easier for a relatively small group to inveigle itself into quite staggeringly influential positions. One cabal in particular reveals – alarmingly – what a small group, driven by a fanatical belief system, can achieve from the shadows. And writing as we are in the United Kingdom, this group is on our doorstep, and has been for over a century. And although perhaps small in number, its reach is big. Our research into this subject demonstrated that every major step in the development of the European Union from a simple trading body to a borderline superstate can be traced back to a very specific ideology, which upholds rule by an elite from behind the scenes. But this isn’t just about politics.

Astonishingly, this ideology is also about mysticism and magic. This shadowy politico-occult movement is synarchy, which was developed by the Frenchman Joseph Alexandre Saint-Yves, the Marquis d’Alveydre, in opposition to the rise of anarchy in the second half of the nineteenth century. To him the ideal synarchist state would be a rigid social hierarchy topped by an elite that is predestined to rule – absolutely at odds with the then emerging concepts of democracy, individual liberty and social mobility. Central to Saint-Yves was the creation of a united Europe, a call for which appears on the first page of his first book on synarchy, Keys to the East (1877). He believed that his perfectly balanced society reflected deep cosmic laws, with which his elite perfectly resonated.

They are also directly guided by the powers that rule the universe – as he believed himself to be. Saint-Yves claimed that in the ancient past an advanced civilisation – based, of course, on synarchic principles – had governed the whole world. This golden age lasted from 7500 to 4000 BCE, before imploding due to a global catastrophe, remembered in legends such as Atlantis. Since then the occult powers-that-be have periodically reintroduced the revelation of synarchy, sending or inspiring figures such as Moses and Jesus – and, naturally, Saint-Yves himself. He adopted the idea, popular in nineteenth-century esoteric and theosophical circles, that spiritually advanced masters – to him preservers of the synarchic revelation – existed in Agartha, a hidden realm in the Himalayas. He confided in his closest associates that he had been visited by its emissaries. Another significant aspect of his version of history was that clandestine societies had transmitted the secret of synarchy throughout the ages. It comes as no surprise to discover that his ‘spiritual fathers of synarchy’ were the usual suspects – the Knights Templar.

For a time in the 1880s and 90s Saint-Yves’ ideas were seriously discussed in political circles in France and elsewhere in Europe. In 1886 he formed the Syndicate of the Professional and Economic Press to promote synarchy to political and business leaders. Several members of the French Parliament joined, including government minister François Césaire Demahy – later a founder of the influential nationalist movement Action Française – and Paul Deschanel, who became President of France in 1920. Saint-Yves was made a chévalier of the Légion d’honneur in 1893. In the end, however, Saint-Yves’ followers realised things would have to change radically. After his death in 1909, and particularly in the uncertain aftermath of the First World War, they knew they could never achieve their ambitions through conventional means – and turned to stealth. They decided on inveigling their members into key positions in political and economic institutions intending on creating, in the words of Richard F. Kuisel, a specialist in twentieth-century French political history, “a world government by an initiated elite.”1 Synarchy came to stand for ‘rule by secret society’, which in practice makes it difficult to distinguish between card-carrying synarchists and those merely under their influence.

Towards Europe’s ‘United States’
The most high-profile late nineteenth-century devotee of Saint-Yves was the physician Gérard Encausse (‘Papus’), a leading light among French esoteric societies. He blended the teachings of his ‘spiritual master’, the eighteenth century occult philosopher Louis-Claude de Saint-Martin, and his ‘intellectual master’ Saint-Yves. Encausse founded the Martinist Order, into which he absorbed synarchist principles – so that, unusually, it had political ambitions, including the formation of ‘a United States of Europe’. Delusions of grandeur, one might have thought… Encausse’s death in 1916 resulted in a schism in the Martinist Order over its involvement in politics. The activists, under Victor Blanchard – head of the secretariat of the Chamber of Deputies of the French Parliament – formed the breakaway Martinist and Synarchic Order, which established the Synarchic Central Committee in 1922, designed to pull in promising young civil servants and “younger members of great business families.”2 The Committee soon became the Synarchic Empire Movement, or MSE (Mouvement Synarchique d’Empire) in 1930, under dedicated firebrands Jeanne Canudo and Vivien Postel du Mas. Canudo is best remembered today as an energetic campaigner for European unity and founder of several youth organisations in the 1930s, select members of which were inducted into the esoteric synarchist orders that she led together with Postel du Mas. An important witness to these events was the celebrated Parisian litterateur Maurice Girodias (publisher of scandalous sensations such as The Story of O, Lolita, Henry Miller’s Sexus and William S. Burrough’s The Naked Lunch). As a teenager in the 1930s he was involved both with Canudo’s European groups and an esoteric society that met at Postel du Mas’ luxurious apartment to hear the ‘secret masters’ speaking through teenage trance medium Laurette. Girodias said of Postel du Mas’ magical salons: “I saw at his feet men of science, company directors, and bankers.”3

Beyond Top Secret
The MSE produced an important but beyond Top Secret document – its very existence unknown to outsiders until 1941 – entitled The Synarchist Revolutionary Pact for the French Empire, usually known simply as the Synarchist Pact. The exact authorship is uncertain but the main candidates are Postel du Mas and the businessman Jean Coutrot. It was only as a result of Coutrot’s apparent suicide under the Nazi Occupation, when copies were found among his possessions, that anyone knew the Pact existed.4 This highly scary document set out a programme for “invisible revolution” or “revolution from above”: that is, taking over a state from within by infiltrating into high office. The first step was to take control of France, before creating the “European Union” – then, tomorrow… Saint-Yves did not invent the concept of a federal Europe. For example, Victor Hugo is credited with first using the term ‘United States of Europe’, although – probably not coincidentally – he was a close friend of Saint-Yves in the French ex-pat community in the Channel Islands in the 1860s. But it became a serious political force when the Pan-European movement was established in 1923 by the Austrian Count Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi, described by Otto von Habsburg – in rather telling terms – as the “guide and prophet” of a united Europe.

He famously won over Winston Churchill, who began espousing European unity from 1930 and wrote a foreword to the Count’s 1953 book An Idea Conquers the World. The Count was a committed believer that cosmic forces shape events, giving him at least the profile of a synarchist. (Sadly we have no information about Churchill’s views on the more occult aspects.) But there is evidence of a closer connection with the French synarchists. In their 1968 Synarchy and Power, André Ulmann and Henri Azeau interviewed one of the inter-war members of the MSE, who claimed it had “inspired the action of Coudenhove-Kalergi and his pan-Europeanism.”5 Coudenhove-Kalergi also lent his support to pro-Europe groups formed by the MSE’s Jeanne Canudo. Maurice Girodias’ involvement with the synarchists began as a 16-year-old when, at a Theosophical Society lecture in 1935, he was intrigued by a group in flamboyant Templar garb led by Postel du Mas and Canudo. He was told they were “schismatic theosophists with political designs, and they are linked to Count Coudenhove-Kalergi… who is a champion of the United States of Europe… Their aim is to launch a pan-European political party and to institute in the entire world, commencing with Europe, a society obedient to a spiritualist idea.”6 In conversation with Girodias Postel du Mas named Coudenhove-Kalergi as one of the two major promoters of his and Canudo’s plans.

The Hood
In the tumultuous aftermath of the First World War, like the rest of Europe France became polarised between communism and fascism. The mid-1930s saw the creation of several clandestine far-right groups, both civilian and military, which were integrated into a single network under the control of a three-man Superior Council. Although it gave itself no particular name, the press dubbed it the Cagoule – or the sinister-sounding ‘Hood’. Indeed, the Chicago Tribune’s correspondent in Paris, William Shirer, summed up the Cagoule as “deliberately terrorist, resorting to murder and dynamiting, and its aim was to overthrow the Republic and set up an authoritarian régime on the model of the Fascist state of Mussolini.”7 Italy supplied the Cagoule with funds and arms and, in return, the Cagoule assassinated anti-fascist Italian refugees in Paris. The Cagoule was led by chévalier of the Légion d’honneur Eugène Deloncle, with the other Council members being Dr Henri Martin and Colonel Georges Groussard, who oversaw cabals within the military. It was funded by wealthy industrialists, including Eugène Schueller, founder of L’Oréal – who obviously thought synarchy was “worth it” – in whose company’s headquarters the group met. Although most of the Cagoule were simply anti-communist extremists, who had probably never heard of synarchy, there’s no doubt that there was a strong connection between the MSE and Superior Council, particularly Deloncle.

The connection was acknowledged by Shirer8 and by Richard Kuisel, who writes: “Strangely enough, although the Cagoule was an archenemy of Freemasonry, it imitated Masonic ritual, symbolism, and method of recruitment. The head of the Cagoule, Eugène Deloncle, even likened its recruiting procedures to the ‘chain method’ of the Illuminati.”9  Basically, through the Cagoule, the synarchists had taken over terrorist groups for their own ends, planning to precipitate a state of emergency that would enable its chosen man to step in as a strong leader to restore order “in the interests of public safety.” And their chosen man was Marshal Philippe Pétain. In September 1937 a series of bomb explosions rocked Paris, intended to kick-start a wave of armed attacks to spread chaos and confusion. But a lucky break led the police to caches of arms and ammunition around the city and Deloncle was arrested. An official report pointed to the MSE, noting “affiliates of the Synarchic Movement were very numerous and already in place within, and at the head of, the major organs of the state, ready to take charge.”10

It is hard to overestimate the influence of the synarchists. They were – and no doubt still are – hardly a bunch of nobodies. A major player in this story was none other than François Mitterrand, later France’s longest-serving President. Although he was to reinvent himself as a socialist, before and during the Second World War he was very much of the extreme right. Even at the time it was rumoured that Mitterrand was a member of the Cagoule. But more sensationally, Henri Martin’s family claimed he had actually planted the 1937 bombs.11 But while no firm evidence exists to support Mitterrand being a cagoulard, and he strenuously denied it when confronted with his shady past in the 1990s, he certainly had the connections, besides the relevant political – and indeed, esoteric – views. Mitterrand believed in rule by an elite – preferably an elite of one: himself. Although from a relatively modest background, he always had an unshakeable belief in his personal superiority, even seeing significance in his family’s origins in the town of Bourges, where a field called the Champs de Mitterrand marks the exact centre of France. ‘Mitterrand’ means ‘middle of the land’.

When the ultra-ambitious Mitterrand finally achieved power he notoriously governed through his ‘clan’ of friends and relatives, famously remarking that he needed only “fifty well-placed friends to run the country.”12 And he began building the clan during those pre-war days, around leading cagoulards, particularly those close to Deloncle. Mitterrand was a close friend of conspirator in the assassination of the Italian anti-fascist Rosselli brothers, Jean Bouyver, and of François Méténier, Deloncle’s assistant who was sentenced to 20 years for his part in the 1937 bombings. But the closest family connection was with Deloncle: Mitterrand’s brother Robert married Deloncle’s sister-in-law just before the outbreak of war. It is inconceivable that Mitterrand never met the Cagoule’s mastermind and top synarchist. Also, as we will see, like Deloncle Mitterrand was deeply fascinated by esoteric and mystical matters.

Secrets of the Hitler-friendly State
Although the Cagoule’s plans to create a state of emergency to bring Pétain to power failed, of course this was achieved three years later by an even greater crisis. In June 1940 France fell to Nazi Germany, Pétain emerging as the leader of the new Hitler-friendly French State, based in Vichy. Almost immediately after France’s ignominious surrender some claimed elements in the military had connived in the defeat, believing that jumping into bed with the Nazis would enable Pétain to achieve his cherished national reorganisation. So it is all the more disturbing that one of Ulmann and Azeau’s ex-MSE informants told them that a senior figure behind the group and “one of the mentors” of the young men being groomed for future greatness in the 1920s and 30s was none other than General Maxime Weygand.13 No doubt not coincidentally married to Saint-Yves’ great-niece, he was Supreme Commander of French and British forces at the outbreak of the Second World War, and in June 1940 it was he who advised the French government to ask Hitler for terms. French researcher Roger Mennevée argued that Vichy represented the climax of the first phase of the plan outlined in the Synarchist Pact – taking power in France in preparation to extend it to Europe – using the Germans to do what the Cagoule had failed to three years earlier.14 Ulmann and Azeau note that, coincidence or not, Vichy was organised precisely on synarchist lines.

Both the Occupation and Vichy were seen as an opportunity by the synarchists. In Paris, Postel du Mas and Canudo positively welcomed the German overlords. One investigator into synarchy notes of one of her pro-Europe organisations, “the majority were found, after 1940, either in the corridors of power in Vichy, or in the collaborationist circles in Paris.”15 In Vichy, unsurprisingly, former cagoulards rose to the top, particularly in the dreaded Milice, Vichy’s equivalent of the Gestapo. Deloncle was freed from prison – and formed a political party to build a ‘new Europe’, while Henri Martin and Colonel Groussard enjoyed high-level roles in the intelligence and surveillance network. Historian John Hellman states bluntly that former cagoulards were behind the “manipulation, control, and orientation of Pétainist France.”16 Although a one-to-one connection between the Cagoule and the synarchs may sometimes be something of a leap, the latter were undoubtedly active in Vichy. Shirer declares there is “no doubt” that synarchists “infiltrated the highest posts in business and finance and in the government bureaucracy.”17 Certainly many of the young hopefuls groomed by the MSE rose to Vichy’s upper echelons – including Yves Bouthillier, Minister of Finance from 1940 to 1942.

What about Mitterrand? Imprisoned in June 1940, he escaped from the Occupied territory in December 1941 to the Vichy zone. He was welcomed by ex-cagoulards who got him various government jobs (his main sponsor was the father-in-law of both his brother and Deloncle) and was even awarded Vichy’s highest honour for services to the state, the Francisque Gallique, in 1943. Soon afterwards Mitterrand hastily changed sides, joining the Resistance and making his way to London to ally himself with the Free French – the only episode allowed to be remembered after the war. He wasn’t the only Vichyite to jump ship. Many French synarchists began cosying up to the Allies, as it was increasingly obvious that the tide had turned against Hitler. Henri Martin joined the American covert organisation, the OSS, and Deloncle established contact with the British SOE, although he was killed in a gun battle with the Gestapo in January 1944. In November 1943 a group of Free French analysts drew up a report explicitly examining synarchists in Vichy and, lately, in the Resistance, acknowledging the reality of synarchy and its considerable influence.18 Unbelievably, Mitterrand emerged from the conflict a Resistance hero and a left-wing politician, his connections with Vichy and his far-right background assigned to the collective amnesia that conveniently gripped France after the war. But as he clearly had cagoulard sympathies and connections, he must have shared their aims – despite his later bluster to the contrary. And with his interests, associations and chameleon-like changing of political colours in order to achieve his goals he certainly looks like the perfect synarchist. But most suspicious by far are his extraordinary efforts to create the European Union…

The EU: An Alternative History
The ‘European project’ began on 9 May 1950 with French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman’s announcement that France and West Germany had agreed to co-ordinate their coal and steel industries. Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg took up his offer to join in, leading seven years later to the Treaty of Rome that established the European Economic Community (EEC). Schuman was only the front man. The prime mover was actually Jean Monnet, the most influential businessman and economist in post-war Europe. Period. The massive international power base he had built up before and during the war gave him immense political influence while keeping out of the public eye.

It was Monnet who had secured the Allies’ backing for General de Gaulle against Roosevelt’s opposition, and in return, de Gaulle gave him responsibility for rebuilding the French economy and industry – a position he used to achieve his great dream, laying the foundations for the EEC. The ‘Schuman Declaration’ was the result of intrigue, trickery and subterfuge by Monnet,19 his most audacious trick being to get French and West German governments to set up a supranational organisation to co-ordinate their industries without realising exactly what they had signed up to. This radical new concept, of an organisation with control over individual nations’ industries but with its own, outside autonomy, laid the foundation for all that came after. Unsurprisingly, Monnet became president of the new body, called – with a chillingly Orwellian tone – the High Authority. Shuman became the first president of the European Parliament in 1958.

What was really going on? A rather large clue lies in the fact that Monnet was another pre-war protégé of the Synarchist Empire Movement. In 1936, Vivien Postel du Mas told Maurice Girodias that, alongside Coudenhove-Kalergi, Monnet was an influential promoter of the synarchist agenda. He certainly publicly supported Canudo’s pro-Europe groups. And one of Ulmann and Azeau’s ex-MSE informants went so far as to describe Monnet as a “true synarch… whose membership of the movement was never in doubt for the true initiates.”20 (Note the occult-sounding “initiates.”) Schuman, too, had pre-war synarchist connections, although not as direct: he had worked closely on political reform in France and European integration with the professor of law Louis Le Fur, a synarchy activist.

Power for Power’s Sake
The Single European Act of 1986, which established free trade and movement between EEC states, was the culmination of the process set in motion by the Schuman Declaration. Over the years the EEC had come to include the UK and Ireland, among others, but the original idea had gone as far as it could. It was Mitterrand who went beyond the original concept by proposing not just closer economic, but alsopolitical, union. The 1992 European Union (‘Maastricht’) Treaty not only turned the EEC into the EU, but for the first time gave the European Parliament powers over member nations (until then it had only an advisory role). Was this the beginning of a European superstate? It also agreed on a single currency, establishing the ‘eurozone’ and the European Central Bank – now terrifyingly beleaguered. All this was Mitterrand’s initiative (aided by German Chancellor Helmut Kohl), including changing the name to the ‘European Union’. Straight out of the Synarchist Pact. Mitterrand made his second bid for the presidency in 1981 – but unlike the first sixteen years before, backed by Jean Monnet, this one was successful. He held the office for two seven-year terms, only being prevented from a third term by the onset of the cancer of which he was to die in 1996. His presidency is remembered for its corruption and the blatant nepotism of his ‘clan’ being rewarded with positions of power. Political historians accept that Mitterrand was purely interested in power for power’s sake, and for the enrichment of himself and his clan, with no real political agenda or vision – except when it came to the ‘European project’. There, he was driven by the desire to see a fully integrated Europe, which he declared “takes precedence over everything.”

But was Mitterrand a card-carrying synarchist? He moved in the right circles, through his pre-war associations with the Cagoule’s leadership. His pursuit of closer European integration certainly fits the synarchists’ core objective. And his interest in esoteric matters also fits the profile – which tends to be downplayed by Mitterrand’s biographers, although it is explored in Nicolas Bonnal’s Mitterrand, the Great Initiate (2001). He employed astrologers – even for major foreign policy decisions – believed in reincarnation, and was interested in UFOs. Even more intriguing to Dan Brown fans – and indeed, our own – is the fact that he had a special veneration for Mary Magdalene, focused on her cult centre at Vézelay. And much has been made of him visiting the celebrated ‘village of mystery’ of Rennes-le-Château (actually only the most high-profile of several visits) during his 1981 election campaign. Nicknamed ‘the Sphinx’, Mitterrand was also fascinated by ancient civilisations: as President he oversaw a great accumulation of Egyptian antiquities by French museums and universities, believing there was some connection between that civilisation and ancient France. Saint-Yves would have agreed.

As President, Mitterrand also spent some 30 billion francs on a major programme of public building, mostly in Paris. Like all egomaniacs he was driven to leave his solid, tangible mark on history. But apparently, there was more to it than that. His monuments’ esoteric symbolism is acknowledged even by mainstream writers, such as Marie Delarue in her 1999 study, tellingly entitled A Republican Pharaoh. She refers to the Parisian buildings as “a journey for initiates,” noting they “seem to relate more to personal destiny and François Mitterrand’s pronounced taste for hermeticism and the Sacred Science, than to the politics of socialist governments.”21 The most famous of his monuments is the great glass pyramid outside the Louvre, unveiled in 1993 to mark the bicentenary of the French Revolution, and clearly reflecting a link between ancient Egypt and France. But the most imposing public work is the Grande Arche de la Fraternité in the La Défence area of Paris, completed in 1989 and designed by the Danish architect Otto von Spreckelsen. Bizarrely – and rather ambitiously – it represents a three-dimensional ‘shadow’ of a hyperdimensional cube that he called a “porte cosmique”: ‘cosmic gateway’ or perhaps even ‘stargate’… But “the most beautiful, most esoteric and least known of the Mitterrandian Great Works”22 – and his personal favourite – is the 1989 Monument to the Rights of Man and the Citizen in the Parc du Champs-de-Mars, in the shadow of the Eiffel Tower. Modelled on an Egyptian funerary temple and aligned to the Sun on the summer solstice, it is literally covered in esoteric symbolism, much of it obviously Masonic. After Mitterrand’s death his staff revealed that he often visited it at night, silently meditating. In both action and belief Mitterrand certainly fits the profile of the synarchist. But remember that synarchy’s elite believed itself to be in direct contact with powerful non-human intelligences who effectively pulled the strings of those in power. Or perhaps Mitterrand was simply under the synarchist elite.

So… Nobody can pretend the journey from the Schuman Declaration to today’s EU has been untroubled. It has been repeatedly obstructed by those opposed to a federal Europe, and diverted by vested interests – political, economic and even criminal – seeking to turn it to their advantage. The whole thing simply can’t have been planned and directed exclusively by the synarchist elite. But on the other hand, it is undeniable that things have turned out how Saint-Yves and his followers would have wanted. And given that all the major steps along the way were the initiative of individuals with direct synarchist connections, it would equally be wrong to dismiss their influence on the EU’s creation. Of course, Saint-Yves’ vision did not end with the creation of the EU and the eurozone. They merely marked the beginning of the ultimate synarchist dream of a true United States of Europe. Building on those foundations, and bringing about even closer integration, depends on overcoming the individual nations’ interests, which has always presented a problem – unless the situation changes drastically. And that is precisely what is happening right now with the major crisis in the eurozone, which has brought the EU to the brink of make-or-break. Senior figures – including the European Commission President José Manuel Barroso – have declared that the only solution to the crisis and preventing it happening again is an even greater level of economic and political integration. The same conclusion has been reached by the likes of the powerful financier George Soros, who has called for a European central authority with greater powers over the member states. On the other hand, some believe that the crisis will be the downfall of the EU. And synarchists – no matter who or where they are – simply can’t let that happen.

1. Richard F. Kuisel, ‘The Legend of the Vichy Synarchy’, in French Historical Studies, spring 1970, 378.
2. André Ulmann and Henri Azeau, Synarchie et pouvoir (Julliard, 1968), 63.
3. Maurice Girodias, Une journée sur le terre (Éditions de la Différence, 1990), vol. I, 411.
4. The Pact was finally published in 1946 by Raoul Hussan, writing under the pseudonym Geoffrey de Charnay, in Synarchie: Panorama de 25 années d’activité occulte (Médicis).
5. Ulmann and Azeau, 64.
6. Girodias, vol. I, 149.
7. William L. Shirer, The Collapse of the Third Republic: An Enquiry into the Fall of France in 1940 (William Heinemann, 1970), 209.
8. See Shirer, 217-20.
9. Kuisel, 385.
10. Quoted in Jean-Raymond Tournoux, L’Histoire secrète (Plon, 1962), 173.

11. The allegation was made to journalist Pierre Péan, during his research for Une jeunesse française: François Mitterrand 1934-1947 (Fayard, 1994), see page 109.
12. Quoted in John Laughland, The Death of Politics: France under Mitterrand (Michael Joseph, 1994), 60.
13. Ulmann and Azeau, 116.
14. Writing in Action, 2 November 1945.
15. De Charnay, 69.
16. John Hellman, The Knight-Monks of Vichy France: Uriage, 1940-1945 (Liverpool University Press, 1997), 331.
17. Shirer, 218.
18. The report is reproduced in Ulmann and Azeau, pages 293-310. Ulmann was one of the Free French analysts, who worked alongside Mitterrand after his ‘defection’.
19. See, for example, Merry and Serge Bromberger, Jean Monnet and the United States of Europe(Coward-McCann, 1969).
20. Ulmann and Azeau, 63.
21. Marie Delarue, Un pharaon républicain (Jacques Grancher, 1999), 8.
22. Delarue, 50.

{Lynn Picknett & Clive Prince began their joint career with Turin Shroud: How Leonardo Da Vinci Fooled History and – eight books later – they have just published The Forbidden Universe. They are best known for their 1997 The Templar Revelation, which Dan Brown acknowledged as the primary inspiration for The Da Vinci Code. As a reward for their contribution they were given cameos in the movie (on the London bus). They also give talks to an international audience. Lynn & Clive both live in South London. Their website is}

Synarchism: The Fascist Roots Of the Wolfowitz Cabal
by Jeffrey Steinberg / May 30, 2003

In 1922, Count Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi launched the Pan European Union, at a founding convention in Vienna, attended by more than 6,000 delegates. Railing against the “Bolshevist menace” in Russia, the Venetian Count called for the dissolution of all the nation-states of Western Europe and the erection of a single, European feudal state, modeled on the Roman and Napoleonic empires. “There are Europeans,” Coudenhove-Kalergi warned, who are “naïve enough to believe that the opposition between the Soviet Union and Europe can be bridged by the inclusion of the Soviet Union in the United States of Europe. These Europeans need only to glance at the map to persuade themselves that the Soviet Union in its immensity can, with the help of the [Communist] Third International, very quickly prevail over little Europe. To receive this Trojan horse into the European union would lead to perpetual civil war and the extermination of European culture. So long, therefore, as there is any will to survive subsisting in Europe, the idea of linking the Soviet Union with Pan Europe must be rejected. It would be nothing less than the suicide of Europe.”

Elsewhere, Coudenhove-Kalergi echoed the contemporaneous writings of British Fabian Roundtable devotees H.G. Wells and Lord Bertrand Russell, declaring: “This eternal war can end only with the constitution of a world republic…. The only way left to save the peace seems to be a politic of peaceful strength, on the model of the Roman Empire, that succeeded in having the longest period of peace in the west thanks to the supremacy of his legions.” The launching of the Pan European Union was bankrolled by the Venetian-rooted European banking family, the Warburgs. Max Warburg, scion of the German branch of the family, gave Coudenhove-Kalergi 60,000 gold marks to hold the founding convention. Even more revealing, the first mass rally of the Pan European Union in Berlin, at the Reichstag, was addressed by Hjalmar Schacht, later the Reichsbank head, Economics Minister and chief architect of the Hitler coup.

A decade later, in October 1932, Schacht delivered a major address before another PanEuropa event, in which he assured Coudenhove-Kalergi and the others, “In three months, Hitler will be in power…. Hitler will create PanEuropa. Only Hitler can create PanEuropa.” According to historical documents, Italy’s Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini was initially skeptical about the PanEuropa idea, but was “won over” to the scheme, following a meeting with Coudenhove-Kalergi, during which, in the Count’s words, “I gave him a complete harvest of Nietzsche’s quotes for the United States of Europe…. My visit represented a shift in the behavior of Mussolini towards PanEuropa. His opposition disappeared.” At the founding congress of the Pan European Union in Vienna, the backdrop behind the podium was adorned with portraits of the movement’s leading intellectual icons: Immanuel Kant, Napoleon Bonaparte, Giuseppe Mazzini, and Friedrich Nietzsche.

Bankers’ Fascism
The pivotal role of Schacht in the Hitler coup and in the Pan European Union, highlights a critical dimension of the universal fascist scheme: the top-down role of the financial “overworld” and its banking technocrats. By all historical accounts, Schacht was the architect, in 1930, of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS), along with the Bank of England’s Montagu Norman. Historian Carroll Quigley, in his epic book, Tragedy and Hope—A History of the World in Our Time (New York: MacMillan Company, 1966), described the BIS scheme to establish a dictatorship over world finance: “The powers of financial capital had another far-reaching aim, nothing less than to create a world system of financial control in private hands able to dominate the political system of each country and the economy of the world as a whole. This system was to be controlled in a feudalist fashion by the central banks of the world acting in concert, by secret agreements arrived at in frequent private meetings and conferences.

The apex of the system was to be the Bank for International Settlements in Basle, Switzerland, a private bank owned and controlled by the world’s central banks which were themselves private corporations. Each central bank, in the hands of men like Montagu Norman of the Bank of England, Benjamin Strong of the New York Federal Reserve Bank, Charles Rist of the Bank of France, and Hjalmar Schacht of the Reichsbank, sought to dominate its government by its ability to control Treasury loans, to manipulate foreign exchanges, to influence the level of economic activity in the country, and to influence cooperative politicians by subsequent economic rewards in the business world.” Quigley highlighted the role of Schacht’s closest ally in the BIS scheme, Bank of England Governor Norman, who headed the privately owned British institution for an unprecedented 24 years (1920-44). “Norman was a strange man,” Quigley reported, “whose mental outlook was one of successfully suppressed hysteria or even paranoia. He had no use for governments and feared democracy. Both of these seemed to him to be threats to private banking, and thus to all that was proper and precious in human life. Strong-willed, tireless, and ruthless, he viewed his life as a kind of cloak-and-dagger struggle with the forces of unsound money which were in league with anarchy and Communism.”

Montagu Norman and Hjalmar Schacht personified the banking overworld, that bankrolled and installed Hitler and the Nazis in power, in pursuit of their larger, universal fascist scheme. Even more damning were the profiles of Schacht and Norman and their role in the Hitler project, in The Hitler Book, by a Schiller Institute research team, headed by Helga Zepp-LaRouche (New York: New Benjamin Franklin House, 1984): “The BIS, nominally set up after the breakdown of ‘normal’ international financial relations in order to prevent a downward spiraling of international payments, in fact finished off the hapless Weimar Republic by its stern refusal to come to the help of a virtually bankrupt Germany in the crucial summer of 1931, after the Danat Bank collapse had brought the whole nation to its knees. Schacht, who had been a member of the original BIS team and was to return to its board from 1933 through 1938, had been campaigning since his 1930 resignation as head of the Reichsbank, for Anglo-American support for a takeover by the NSDAP [Nazi Party] and its leader, Herr Hitler. He had resigned on March 7, 1930 and the BIS was formally established in June.

In September, he was off to London and the United States, to ‘sell’ the Nazi option to the Anglo-American leadership, notably Bank of England governor and BIS director Montagu Norman, and the already influential Dulles brothers of Sullivan & Cromwell law firm, one of America’s most influential—and the attorneys for IG Farben, and many other large German companies and provincial governments. Schacht’s Hamburg friend and colleague, patrician Nazi Gerhard Westrick, ran the correspondent law firm to Dulles’s in Germany.” On March 16, 1933, a grateful Hitler brought Schacht back as head of the Reichsbank, explained The Hitler Book. A year later, Schacht was made Economics Minister. “Now, the BIS was going to help the Third Reich—by 1939 it had no less than several hundred million Swiss gold francs invested in Germany. On the BIS board were Baron Kurt von Schröder, by now a general in the SS Death’s Head Brigade; Dr. Hermann Schmitz of IG Farben—whom Schacht had trained at the imperial economics ministry from 1915 on—and, later, Hitler’s two personal appointees, Walter Funk and Emil Puhl of the Reichsbank.”

File: ‘Synarchist/Nazi-Communist’
The larger universal fascist schema, into which the Norman-Schacht “Hitler project” fit, was well known to leading American intelligence, military, and diplomatic figures of the Franklin Roosevelt era, who maintained exhaustive files under such headings as “Synarchist/Nazi-Communist.” U.S. government archives from the FDR era, which were made available to EIR researchers, feature extensive intelligence reports on the international fascist plots, from the files of the U.S. State Department; U.S. Army Intelligence and Navy Intelligence; and the Coordinator of Information (COI), and its successor, the Office of Strategic Services (OSS).

These files are of immediate relevance today, given the ongoing coup d’état in Washington by the disciples of Leo Strauss, Alexandre Kojève, and Carl Schmitt inside the George W. Bush Administration. Kojève and Schmitt were leading figures in the wartime “Synarchist” conspiracy, and they personified the perpetuation of that universal fascist plan and apparatus into the postwar period. Already, major American and European newspapers have identified such putschists as Paul Wolfowitz, Abram Shulsky, William Kristol, John Ashcroft, Steve Cambone, and Gary Schmitt as the offspring of the late University of Chicago Prof. Leo Strauss; Strauss, in turn, was the life-long collaborator and promoter of Nazi jurist Carl Schmitt, official Nazi philosopher and Nietzsche revivalist Martin Heidegger, and French Synarchist Alexandre Kojève—all unabashed advocates of tyranny as the only appropriate form of government. Although the May 4 Sunday New York Times feature off-handedly mentions Kojève as Strauss’s colleague, without further identification, all of the major media coverage has been sanitized of any discussion of the overtly fascist/Synarchist roots of the Straussian creed. Nevertheless, there are growing indications that some elements within the U.S. political institutions—particularly the military and intelligence communities, which comprise an important element of what Lyndon LaRouche refers to as “the institution of the U.S. Presidency”—are waking up to the cruel reality that a small group of universal fascists has seized the reins of power and is steering an ill-equipped President George W. Bush, the United States, and the rest of the world into a maelstrom of perpetual war and chaos. A timely review of the history of the 20th-Century Synarchists is, therefore, in order, to enable those political circles already shocked into action, to understand the nature of the enemy, and exploit the greatest weakness of these Straussian would-be putschists—their open embrace of universal fascism, otherwise known as “Synarchism.”

The Langer Study
As EIR reported on May 9 (“Dick Cheney Has a French Connection—To Fascism”), in 1947, OSS veteran and Harvard Prof. William L. Langer assembled the official history of the Roosevelt Administration’s dealings with Vichy France. Our Vichy Gamble was based on an exhaustive review of wartime archives, buttressed by interviews with top American officials, including OSS head Gen. William Donovan and President Franklin Roosevelt himself. Langer minced no words in discussing the Synarchist circles in Vichy France. Referring to Adm. Jean François Darlan, who, along with Pierre Laval, was among the most notorious of the Vichy collaborationists with the Nazis, Langer wrote: “Darlan’s henchmen were not confined to the fleet. His policy of collaboration with Germany could count on more than enough eager supporters among French industrial and banking interests—in short, among those who even before the war, had turned to Nazi Germany and had looked to Hitler as the savior of Europe from Communism…. These people were as good fascists as any in Europe…. Many of them had long had extensive and intimate business relations with German interests and were still dreaming of a new system of ‘synarchy,’ which meant government of Europe on fascist principles by an international brotherhood of financiers and industrialists.” EIR is in possession of many of the documents that Langer reviewed, in preparing Our Vichy Gamble.

They offer an in-depth study of a fascist apparatus, whose European-wide tentacles extended into France, Germany, Britain, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands—and, across the Atlantic, inside the United States. One particularly revealing document, prepared by the Coordinator of Information in November 1940, focussed on the Synarchist strategy towards England and America. The document was called, “Synarchie and the Policy of the Banque Worms Group.” The unnamed author began, “In recent reports there have been several references to the growing political power of the Banque Worms group in France, which includes amongst its members such ardent collaborationists as Pucheu, Benoist-Mechin, Leroy-Ladurie, Bouthillier, and representatives of big French industrial organizations.” Under the subtitle, “Similarity of aims of ‘Synarchie’ and Banque Worms,” the report continued, “The reactionary movement known as ‘Synarchie’ has been in existence in France for nearly a century. Its aim has always been to carry out a bloodless revolution, inspired by the upper classes, aimed at producing a form of government by ‘technicians,’ under which home and foreign policy would be subordinated to international economy.

The aims of the Banque Worms group are the same as those of ‘Synarchie,’ and the leaders of the two groups are, in most cases, identical.” The “Banque Worms group” was closely allied with the Lazard banking interests in Paris, London, and New York, and with Royal Dutch Shell’s Henri Deterding. Hippolyte Worms, the bank’s founder, was one of 12 initial Synarchist Movement of Empire (SME) members, according to other French police and intelligence reports. The report itemized the aims of the Synarchists, as of August 1940: “to check any new social schemes which might tend to weaken the power of the international financiers and industrialists; to work for the ultimate complete control of all industry by international finance and industry; to protect Jewish and Anglo-Saxon interests; … to take advantage of Franco-German collaboration to conclude a series of agreements with German industries, thereby establishing a solid community of interests between French and German industrialists, which will tend to strengthen the hands of international finance and industry; … to effect a fusion with Anglo-Saxon industry after the war.” The author of the COI study reported, “There is reason to believe that both [Hermann] Göring and Dr. [Walther] Funk are in sympathy with these aspirations,” and that “Some headway is claimed to have been made in securing the adhesion of big U.S. industry to the movement.”

Beaverbrook and Hoare
The COI study’s segment regarding “Policy in regard to Great Britain,” elaborated the following Synarchist plan: “To bring about the fall of the Churchill Government by creating the belief in the country that a more energetic government is needed to prosecute the war; it is recognized that an effective means of creating suspicion of the Government’s efficiency would be to induce the resignation of Lord Beaverbrook; to bring about the formation of a new Government including Sir Samuel Hoare, Lord Beaverbrook and Mr. Hore-Belisha. (Note. The source has added that in the Worms group it is believed that those circles in Great Britain who are favorably disposed to their plan, are most critical of Mr. Churchill, Lord Halifax and Captain Margesson.); through the medium of Sir Samuel Hoare to bring about an agreement between British industry and the Franco-German ‘bloc'; to protect Anglo-Saxon interests on the continent; to reach an agreement for the cessation of the reciprocal bombing of industrial centers. (Note. The source has added that Göring is reputed to have signified his entire approval of this project.)” The naming of Lord Beaverbrook and Sir Samuel Hoare, two leading figures in the British Roundtable group, as Synarchist collaborators is of great significance, indicating that American intelligence, from no later than 1940, was tracking the high-level British involvement in the scheme for a postwar universal fascist “Europe of the oligarchs,” along precisely the lines spelled out in Count Coudenhove-Kalergi’s “Synarchist” manifesto, founding the Pan European Union. Indeed, other U.S. intelligence wartime documents identified the PEU as a project of the European Synarchist secret brotherhood.

The Synarchist Movement of Empire (SME), according to various accounts in the wartime U.S. files, was founded in 1917 or 1922, and the first two major “projects” of the Synarchists were Mussolini’s March on Rome and the launching of the Pan Europa movement. Back on the British front: Sir Samuel Hoare was a leading figure in British intelligence, having been posted to Russia during the period of the Bolshevik Revolution, where he had a personal hand in the assassination of Grigori Rasputin, after Rasputin had warned that Russian participation in World War I would surely lead to the fall of the Romanovs. Hoare was the leading British military intelligence case-officer for instigating the overthrow of the Tsar and the Russian Revolution.

He personified the upper echelons of what U.S. intelligence files characterized as the “Synarchist/Nazi-Communist” group. In his capacity as Foreign Secretary in 1935, he had negotiated the Hoare-Laval agreement, by which Great Britain and France mutually accepted Mussolini’s conquest by invasion of Abyssinia, a major act of appeasement. He later served as British ambassador to Francisco Franco’s Spain, and, according to several biographical accounts, remained secretly on Lord Beaverbrook’s payroll as a policy advisor. Hoare, later “Lord Templewood,” was also a leading British promoter of Frank Buchman and the Moral Rearmament Movement, the antecedent to Rev. Sun Myung Moon’s Unification Church (see EIR, Dec. 20, 2002). The case of Lord Beaverbrook (Max Aitken) has even more profound and enduring implications, given that two of the leading financial-political propagandists for today’s neo-conservative revolution in Washington—press magnates Lord Conrad Black and Rupert Murdoch—are Beaverbrook protégés.

The Australian Murdoch, on graduating Oxford, did an apprenticeship at Beaverbrook’s London Daily Express, which Murdoch referred affectionately to as “Beaverbrook’s brothel.” For Black, the connection ran deeper—through the wartime British secret intelligence high command. Conrad Black’s father, George Montagu Black, worked directly under the Beaverbrook chain of command during World War II, when Beaverbrook was Minister of Aircraft Production, and when Black and Edward Plunkett Taylor ran the Canadian front company War Supplies, Ltd. out of the Willard Hotel in Washington, coordinating all British-American-Canadian military procurement arrangements. The $1.3 billion garnered by Taylor and Black from their wartime “private” arms deals provided the seed money for G.M. Black’s postwar launching of the Argus Corp., which, today, is the Hollinger Corp. media cartel of Conrad Black.

Beaverbrook’s transformation, from a leading promoter of an Anglo-German alliance following Hitler’s takeover, to a leading war cabinet official, following Hitler’s attack on Britain, was nothing short of miraculous. In 1935, when Hoare had conducted the secret negotiations with Laval, Beaverbrook had accompanied the Foreign Secretary on the trip and conducted his own back-channel work to assure positive media coverage of the deal in both England and France. That year, Beaverbrook traveled to Rome and Berlin for personal meetings with Mussolini and Hitler. A year later, Beaverbrook was the guest of Hitler’s Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, at the Munich Olympic Games. But the most famous part that Beaverbrook played in the Hitler saga, had to do with the 1933 Reichstag fire—the arson attack on the Weimar Republic’s parliament—which consolidated Hitler’s death grip on absolute power.

Beaverbrook had posted a trusted aide, Sefton Delmer, in charge of his Daily Express press bureau in Berlin, and Delmer had become a confidant of Hitler, traveling with him on the campaign trail during the 1933 elections. Delmer was one of the first “journalists” to arrive as the Reichstag burned, and his dispatch from the scene—complete with exclusive interviews with Hitler, Göring, and others—established the cover for the actual Nazi authors of the terror attack, which sealed Hitler’s dictatorship. Delmer, in a 1939 article recounting the incident, stuck to his story, which countered the majority of the world media coverage, and blamed the fire on a communist—not on the Nazis. Beaverbrook—even after his “Damascus road conversion” to war cabinet minister—retained his ties to the Nazi machine. When Nazi leader Rudolph Hess parachuted into Scotland, in a final vain effort to maintain the Anglo-Nazi alliance against the Soviet Union, Beaverbrook arranged a private prison interview with Hess. Details of the session are still sketchy, but one quote to emerge from the meeting, was Hess telling Beaverbrook: “Hitler likes you a great deal.”

‘Synarchism’ Defined
Among the thousands of documents that EIR obtained from the U.S. wartime archives was an 18-page French military intelligence report, summarizing a 100-page dossier on the French Synarchist groups, dated July 1941. The report dealt with the Synarchist Movement of Empire (SME), the Synarchist Revolutionary Convention (SRC) and the Secret Committee of Revolutionary Action (SCRA), the military leadership arm of the SME, also known as the “Cagoulards” (the “hooded ones”). The report provided a brief history: “The Synarchist movement is an international movement born after the Versailles Treaty, which was financed and directed by certain financial groups belonging to the top international banking community. Its aim is essentially to overthrow in every country, where they exist, the parliamentary regimes which are considered insufficiently devoted to the interests of these groups and therefore, too difficult to control because of the number of persons required to control them. “SME proposes therefore to substitute them by authoritarian regimes more docile and more easily manueverable. Power would be concentrated in the hands of the CEOs of industry and in designated representatives of chosen banking groups for each country.

In a word, the idea is to give to each country a political constitution and an appropriate national economic structure organized for the following purposes: “1. Place the political power directly into the hands of chosen people and eliminate all intermediaries. 2. Establish a maximum concentration of industries and suppress all unwarranted competition. 3. Establish an absolute control of prices of all goods (raw materials, semi-finished or finished goods). 4. Create judicial and social institutions that would prevent all extremes of action.” The dossier reported that, following failed Cagoulard insurrections in 1934 and 1937, the SME infiltrated all the economic and related ministries of the French government, conducted sabotage from within the regime, and set the basis for the Vichy government of 1940, which was dominated, from top to bottom, by Synarchist secret society members. The report named 40 top officials of the government of Marshal Henri Philippe Pétain, who were all SME members. The dossier repeatedly emphasized that the French SME was but one component of an international Synarchist apparatus, “organized and financed in all countries by certain elements of industrial CEOs and high banking circles. Its objective on the international level is to subvert all of the democratic regimes in the world, and substitute them with stronger governments, more docile and whose leaders of command in each nation are centralized in the hands of a number of affiliates belonging to big business and international banking interests which coordinate their activities around the world.” In France, under the Vichy regime, noted the dossier, “the main administrations of the country, have become the arms of Bank Worms whose administrative council controls all of the top administrators of the state.”

The Synarchists did not concentrate all their efforts on infiltrating and controlling the Vichy regime. A U.S. military intelligence report, dated July 27, 1944, from the military attaché in Algiers, warned of Synarchist penetration of the upper echelons of the Free French government of Gen. Charles de Gaulle, headquartered in Algeria. “Some of the oldest and formerly most faithful supporters of General de Gaulle are worried by what they call a tendency to let ‘Synarchism’ penetrate even the highest brackets of the Algiers Administration,” the report began. “It is believed that General de Gaulle up to recently, opposed Synarchism, which is a strongly reactionary movement, financed by the Haute Banque. He has even ordered a confidential study to be made on the subject, a copy of which has been seen by American officers.” The report concluded, “If it is a fact that many individuals who are holding positions of importance in the cabinet and the immediate entourage of General de Gaulle, are also closely associated with political ideas alien to the program which de Gaulle and his government publicly endorse, then far-reaching political inferences may be drawn.”

Of course, a decade later, leading wartime “Gaullist” Jacques Soustelle would launch the Secret Army Organization (OAS), which would be responsible for repeated assassination attempts against de Gaulle, and would be implicated in the Permindex assassination of President John F. Kennedy. While it is not certain that Soustelle was a wartime member of the Synarchist plot, it is certain, from French and American government records, that one leading Synarchist operative infiltrated into the de Gaulle Free French camp was Robert Marjolin, one of Alexandre Kojève’s prize student/protégés of his 1933-39 courses on Hegel, Nietzsche, and the “end of history.” Marjolin became Minister of Economy in the first de Gaulle postwar government, and he immediately brought Kojève into the ministry.

The Cult of Napoleon
At its core, the Synarchist international—like its front group Pan European Union—sought to create a one-world tyranny, modeled on the reign of Napoleon Bonaparte. The first “Synarchist” text was written in the 1860s by Joseph Alexandre Saint-Yves d’Alveydre (1842-1909), an occultist and follower of Napoleon Bonaparte’s own mystical advisor, Antoine Fabre d’Olivet (1767-1825). Fabre d’Olivet had started out as a leading member of the Jacobins, participating personally in the foiled assassination plot against King Louis XVI in 1789. He later served as a top official of the Interior and War Ministries under Napoleon Bonaparte. His occult writings about “purgative violence” and the “will to power”—antecedents of the works of Nietzsche—were adopted by Saint-Yves d’Alveydre, who launched the idea of Synarchism as a counter to the anarchy that had destabilized all of Europe, from 1648. Saint-Yves’ successor, Gerard Vincent Encausse (“Papus”), founded the Saint-Yves School of Occult Sciences, and began a recruiting drive for a secret society, which he called the Synarchy Government.

In his 1894 book Anarchie, Indolence & Synarchie, Papus spelled out an ambitious scheme to recruit all of the leaders of industry, commerce, finance, the military, and academia, to a single power scheme, aimed at destroying the “internal microbe” of society, anarchy. Both Saint-Yves and Papus envisioned a global Synarchist empire, divided into five geographic areas: 1. the British Empire; 2. Euro-Africa; 3. Eurasia; 4. Pan-America; 5. Asia. Indeed, Alexandre Kojève is identified in Russian sources as a leader of the so-called “Eurasians,” a group of Russian emigrés in the 1920s Berlin and Paris, led by Sir Samuel Hoare’s Guchkov and tied into the Soviet secret service project called “the Trust.” The “Eurasians” welcomed the Russian Revolution as a purgative force to wipe out corrupt Western civilization. Kojève’s own cosmology of great tyrants counted Josef Stalin and Adolf Hitler as second only to Napoleon, in achieving the “end of history” goal of a true global tyranny.

Strauss, Kojève, Schmitt, and Schacht
While none of the American archive documents reviewed to date by EIR identify Nazi jurist Carl Schmitt as a Synarchist, circumstantial evidence points to that conclusion. Schmitt was an emissary to Spain, Portugal, France, and Italy, during the height of fascism, turning out a series of juridical documents, justifying the jackboot tyrannies. Schmitt was a protected asset of Göring, the leading Synarchist figure in Nazi Germany. Like the banker Hjalmar Schacht, Schmitt was cleared of war crimes by the Nuremberg Tribunals. In effect, as documented in The Hitler Book, Schacht blackmailed the Tribunal, by aggressively asserting that he was only acting on behalf of the international financial establishment, represented by the Bank for International Settlements, in his incarnation as a top Nazi official. If backed against a wall, he threatened, he would provide evidence of the international financial cabal behind the “Hitler project.” Schacht was acquitted, over the strenuous objections of both the American and Soviet judges. In effect, the perpetrators of the Nazi Holocaust were brought to justice at Nuremberg, while the architects of the larger Synarchist scheme, like Schacht and Leo Strauss’ mentor Carl Schmitt, were given a safe conduct, and, through the efforts of postwar occupation figures like John J. McCloy and Gen. William Draper, were vetted for future service. A final note: In 1955, Schmitt was corresponding with Kojève, arranging for the Paris-based Russian emigré to address the Düsseldorf industrialists’ association—which had been a focal point of Franco-German “Synarchist” collaboration between the Nazi and Vichy governments—and meet, during that visit, with Schmitt’s close friend Schacht. It was this Kojève who maintained the closest collaboration with Leo Strauss, and who promoted his theories of purgative violence and universal tyranny with such leading Strauss disciples as Allan Bloom (the mentor of Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz) and Francis Fukuyama. This Synarchist stew remains Vice President Dick Cheney’s gang’s “French Connection.”

It’s the Interest, Stupid! Why Bankers Rule the World
by Ellen Brown  /  08 November 2012

In the 2012 edition of Occupy Money, Professor Margrit Kennedy writes that a stunning 35 percent to 40 percent of everything we buy goes to interest. This interest goes to bankers, financiers, and bondholders, who take a 35 percent to 40 percent cut of our GDP. That helps explain how wealth is systematically transferred from Main Street to Wall Street. The rich get progressively richer at the expense of the poor, not just because of “Wall Street greed,” but because of the inexorable mathematics of our private banking system. This hidden tribute to the banks will come as a surprise to most people, who think that if they pay their credit card bills on time and don’t take out loans, they aren’t paying interest. This, says Dr. Kennedy, is not true. Tradesmen, suppliers, wholesalers and retailers all along the chain of production rely on credit to pay their bills. They must pay for labor and materials before they have a product to sell, and before the end-buyer pays for the product 90 days later. Each supplier in the chain adds interest to its production costs, which are passed on to the ultimate consumer. Dr. Kennedy cites interest charges ranging from 12 percent for garbage collection, to 38 percent for drinking water, to 77 percent for rent in public housing in her native Germany. Her figures are drawn from the research of economist Helmut Creutz, writing in German and interpreting Bundesbank publications. They apply to the expenditures of German households for everyday goods and services in 2006; but similar figures are seen in financial sector profits in the United States, where they composed a whopping 40 percent of US business profits in 2006. That’s more than five times the 7 percent made by the banking sector in 1980. Bank assets, financial profits, interest and debt have all been growing exponentially.

110812brown 1
(Source: Adapted from Of Two Minds)

Exponential growth in financial sector profits has occurred at the expense of the non-financial sectors, where incomes have at best grown linearly.

110812brown 2(Source: Consider the Evidence)

By 2010, 1 percent of the population owned 42 percent of financial wealth, while 80 percent of the population owned only 5 percent of financial wealth. Dr. Kennedy observes that the bottom 80 percent pay the hidden interest charges that the top 10 percent collect, making interest a strongly regressive tax that the poor pay to the rich.

110812brown 3
Who Rules America?

Exponential growth is unsustainable. In nature, sustainable growth progresses in a logarithmic curve that grows increasingly more slowly until it levels off (the red line in the first chart above). Exponential growth does the reverse: It begins slowly and increases over time, until the curve shoots up vertically (the chart below). Exponential growth is seen in parasites, cancers – and compound interest. When the parasite runs out of its food source, the growth curve suddenly collapses. People generally assume that if they pay their bills on time, they aren’t paying compound interest; but again, this isn’t true. Compound interest is baked into the formula for most mortgages, which comprises 80 percent of US loans. If credit cards aren’t paid within the one-month grace period, interest charges are compounded daily; and even if you pay within the grace period, you are paying 2 percent to 3 percent for the use of the card, since merchants pass their merchant fees on to the consumer. Debit cards, which are the equivalent of writing checks, also involve fees. Visa-MasterCard and the banks at both ends of these interchange transactions charge an average fee of 44 cents per transaction - though the cost to them is about 4 cents. Even if you pay cash, you are liable to be paying an additional 2 percent to 3 percent, since, until recently, merchants were not allowed to give discounts for cash payments. A July 2012 settlement with Visa and MasterCard, however, allowed merchants in the settlement to add a surcharge for credit card use.

How to Recapture the Interest: Own the Bank
The implications of all this are stunning. If we had a financial system that returned the interest collected from the public directly to the public, 35 percent could be lopped off the price of everything we buy. That means we could buy three items for the current price of two, and that our paychecks could go 50 percent farther than they go today. Direct reimbursement to the people is a hard system to work out, but there is a way we could collectively recover the interest paid to banks. We could do it by turning the banks into public utilities and their profits into public assets. Profits would return to the public, either reducing taxes or increasing the availability of public services and infrastructure. By borrowing from their own publicly-owned banks, governments could eliminate their interest burden altogether. This has been demonstrated elsewhere with stellar results, including in Canada, Australia, and Argentina, among other countries. In 2011, the US federal government paid $454 billion in interest on the federal debt – nearly one-third the total $1.1 trillion ($1,100 billion) paid in personal income taxes that year. If the government had been borrowing directly from the Federal Reserve – which has the power to create credit on its books and now rebates its profits directly to the government – personal income taxes could have been cut by a third. Borrowing from its own central bank interest-free might allow a government to eliminate its national debt altogether. In Money and Sustainability: The Missing Link, Bernard Lietaer and Christian Asperger, et al., cite the example of France. The treasury borrowed interest-free from the nationalized Banque de France from 1946 to 1973. The law then changed to forbid this practice, requiring the treasury to borrow instead from the private sector. The authors include a chart showing what would have happened if the French government had continued to borrow interest-free, versus what did happen. Rather than dropping from 21 percent to 8.6 percent of GDP, the debt shot up from 21 percent to 78 percent of GDP. “No ‘spendthrift government’ can be blamed in this case,” write the authors. “Compound
interest explains it all!”

More than Just a Federal Solution
It is not just federal governments that could eliminate their interest charges in this way. State and local governments could do it too. Consider California. At the end of 2010, it had general obligation and revenue bond debt of $158 billion. Of this, $70 billion, or 44 percent, was owed for interest. If the state had incurred that debt to its own bank – which then returned the profits to the state – California could be $70 billion richer today. Instead of slashing services, selling off public assets, and laying off employees, it could be adding services and repairing its decaying infrastructure. The only US state to own its own depository bank today is North Dakota. North Dakota is also the only state to have escaped the 2008 banking crisis, sporting a sizable budget surplus every year since then. It has the lowest unemployment rate in the country, the lowest foreclosure rate, and the lowest default rate on credit card debt. Globally, 40 percent of banks are publicly owned, and they are concentrated in countries that also escaped the 2008 banking crisis.

These are the BRIC countries – Brazil, Russia, India, and China – which are home to 40 percent of the global population. The BRICs grew economically by 92 percent in the last decade, while Western economies were floundering. Cities and counties could also set up their own banks; but in the US, this model has yet to be developed. In North Dakota, meanwhile, the Bank of North Dakota underwrites the bond issues of municipal governments, saving them from the vagaries of the “bond vigilantes” and speculators, as well as from the high fees of Wall Street underwriters and the risk of coming out on the wrong side of interest rate swaps required by the underwriters as “insurance.

“One of many cities crushed by this Wall Street “insurance” scheme is Philadelphia, which has lost $500 million on interest swaps alone. The complicated way in which the swaps work was explained in an earlier article here. Last week, the Philadelphia City Council held hearings on what to do about these lost revenues, which have gone directly into the coffers of Wall Street banks. In an October 30 article titled “Can Public Banks End Wall Street Hegemony?” Willie Osterweil discussed a solution presented at the hearings in a fiery speech by Mike Krauss, a director of the Public Banking Institute. Krauss’ solution was to do as Iceland did: Just walk away. He proposed “a strategic default until the bank negotiates at better terms.” Osterweil called it “radical,” since the city would lose it favorable credit rating. But Krauss had a solution to that problem: the city could form its own bank, and use it to generate credit from public revenues just as Wall Street banks do now. “The crux of Krauss’ argument, and most radical of all, is for the creation of a public bank,” wrote Osterweil, which “will keep the taxes and other financial assets of the people … circulating in the city, by leveraging them to provide the sustainable and affordable credit required in a modern economy to power locally directed economic development and jobs creation.” It is a radical solution whose time has come. Public banking may be a radical solution, but it is also an obvious one. This is not rocket science. By developing a public banking system, governments can keep the interest and reinvest it locally. According to Kennedy and Creutz, that means public savings of 35 percent to 40 percent. Costs can be reduced across the board; taxes can be cut or services can be increased; and market stability can be created for governments, borrowers and consumers. Banking and credit can become public utilities, feeding the economy rather than feeding off it.

the DEEP STATE (excerpts)
The State, the Deep State, and the Wall Street Overworld  /  The Asia-Pacific Journal
by Peter Dale Scott  / March 13, 2014

In the last decade it has become more and more obvious that we have in America today what the journalists Dana Priest and William Arkin have called

two governments: the one its citizens were familiar with, operated more or less in the open: the other a parallel top secret government whose parts had mushroomed in less than a decade into a gigantic, sprawling universe of its own, visible to only a carefully vetted cadre – and its entirety…visible only to God.1

And in 2013, particularly after the military return to power in Egypt, more and more authors referred to this second level as America’s “deep state.”2 Here for example is the Republican analyst Mike Lofgren:

There is the visible government situated around the Mall in Washington, and then there is another, more shadowy, more indefinable government that is not explained in Civics 101 or observable to tourists at the White House or the Capitol. The former is traditional Washington partisan politics: the tip of the iceberg that a public watching C-SPAN sees daily and which is theoretically controllable via elections. The subsurface part of the iceberg I shall call the Deep State, which operates according to its own compass heading regardless of who is formally in power.3

At the end of 2013 a New York Times Op-Ed noted this trend, and even offered a definition of the term that will work for the purposes of this essay:

DEEP STATE n. A hard-to-perceive level of government or super-control that exists regardless of elections and that may thwart popular movements or radical change. Some have said that Egypt is being manipulated by its deep state.4

The political activities of the deep state are the chief source and milieu of what I have elsewhere called “deep politics:” “all those political practices and arrangements, deliberate or not, which are usually repressed rather than acknowledged.”5

Others, like Tom Hayden, call the deep state a “state within the state,” and suggest it may be responsible for the failure of the Obama administration to follow the policy guidelines of the president’s speeches:

We have seen evidence of a “state within the state” before, going back as far as the CIA’s operations against Cuba. In Obama’s time, the president correctly named the 2009 coup in Honduras a “coup”, and then seemed powerless to prevent it.6

This development of a two-level or dual state has been paralleled by two other dualities: the increasing resolution of American society into two classes – the “one percent” and the “ninety-nine percent” – and the bifurcation of the U.S. economy into two aspects: the domestic, still subject to some governmental regulation and taxation, and the international, relatively free from governmental controls.7

All three developments have affected and intensified each other – particularly since the Reagan Revolution of 1980, which saw American inequality of wealth cease to diminish and begin to increase.8 Thus for example we shall see how Wall Street – the incarnation of the “one percent” – played a significant role in increasing the deep state after World War Two, and how three decades later the deep state played a significant role in realigning America for the Reagan Revolution.In earlier books I have given versions of this America-centered account of America’s shift into empire and a deep state. But another factor to be mentioned is the shift of global history towards an increasingly global society dominated by a few emergent superpowers. This trend was accelerated after the Industrial Revolution by new technologies of transport, from the railroad in the 19th century to the jet plane and space travel in the 20th.9 In the fallout from this rearrangement we must include two world wars, as a result of which Britain ceased to act as the dominant superpower it had been since Napoleon. Not surprisingly, the Soviet Union and the United States subsequently competed in a Cold War to fill the gap. It  was not however predetermined that the Cold War would be as thuggish and covertly violent as for decades it continued to be. For that we should look to more contingent causes on both sides of the Iron Curtain – starting with the character of Stalin and his party but also including the partly responsive development of the American deep state.

The Deep State, The Shadow Government and the Wall Street Overworld
The “deep state” was defined by the UK newsletter On Religion as “the embedded anti-democratic power structures within a government, something very few democracies can claim to be free from.”10 The term originated in Turkey in 1996, to refer to U.S.-backed elements, primarily in the intelligence services and military, who had repeatedly used violence to interfere with and realign Turkey’s democratic political process. Sometimes the definition is restricted to elements within the government (or “a state-within-the state”), but more often in Turkey the term is expanded, for historical reasons, to include “members of the Turkish underworld.”11 In this essay I shall use “deep state” in the larger sense, to include both the second level of secret government inside Washington and those outsiders powerful enough, in either the underworld or overworld, to give it direction. In short I shall equate the term “deep state” with what in 1993 I termed a “deep political system:” “ one which habitually resorts to decision-making and enforcement procedures outside as well as inside those publicly sanctioned by law and society.”12 Like myself, Lofgren suggests an ambiguous symbiosis between two aspects of the American deep state:

1)  the Beltway agencies of the shadow government, like the CIA and NSA, which have been instituted by the public state and now overshadow it, and

2)  the much older power of Wall Street, referring to the powerful banks and law firms located there.

In his words,

It is not too much to say that Wall Street may be the ultimate owner of the Deep State and its strategies, if for no other reason than that it has the money to reward government operatives with a second career that is lucrative beyond the dreams of avarice – certainly beyond the dreams of a salaried government employee.13

I shall argue that in the 1950s Wall Street was a dominating complex. It included not just banks and oil firms but also the oil majors whose cartel arrangements were successfully defended against the U.S. Government by the Wall Street law firm Sullivan and Cromwell, home to the Dulles brothers. This larger complex is what I mean by the Wall Street overworld.

The Long History of the Wall Street Overworld
Lofgren’s inclusion of Wall Street is in keeping with Franklin Roosevelt’s observation in 1933 to his friend Col. E.M. House that “The real truth … is, as you and I know, that a financial element in the larger centers has owned the Government ever since the days of Andrew Jackson.”14 FDR’s insight is well illustrated by the efficiency with which a group of Wall Street bankers (including Nelson Rockefeller’s grandfather Nelson Aldrich and Paul Warburg) were able in a highly secret meeting in 1910 to establish the Federal Reserve System – a system which in effect reserved oversight of the nation’s currency supply and of all America’s banks in the not impartial hands of its largest.15 The political clout of the quasi-governmental Federal Reserve Board (where the federal Treasury is represented but does not dominate) was clearly demonstrated in 2008, when Fed leadership secured instant support from the successive administrations of a Texan Republican president, followed by a Midwest Democratic one, for public money to rescue the reckless management of Wall Street banks: banks Too Big To Fail, and of course far Too Big To Jail, but not Too Big To Bail.16

Wall Street and the Launching of the CIA
Top-level Treasury officials, CIA officers, and Wall Street bankers and lawyers think alike because of the “revolving door” by which they pass easily from private to public service and back. In 1946 General Vandenberg, as Director of Central Intelligence (DCI), recruited Allen Dulles, then a Republican lawyer at Sullivan and Cromwell in New York, “to draft proposals for the shape and organization of what was to become the Central Intelligence Agency in 1947.” Dulles promptly formed an advisory group of six men, all but one of whom were Wall Street investment bankers or lawyers.17 Dulles and two of the six (William H. Jackson and Frank Wisner) later joined the agency, where Dulles proceeded to orchestrate policies, such as the overthrow of the Arbenz regime in Guatemala, that he had previously discussed in New York at the Council on Foreign Relations.18 There seems to be little difference in Allen Dulles’s influence whether he was a Wall Street lawyer or a CIA director. Although he did not formally join the CIA until November 1950, he was in Berlin before the start of the 1948 Berlin Blockade, “supervising the unleashing of anti-Soviet propaganda across Europe.”19 In the early summer of 1948 he set up the American Committee for a United Europe (ACUE), in support of what became by the early 1950s “the largest CIA operation in Western Europe.”20

The Deep State and Funds for CIA Covert Operations
Wall Street was also the inspiration for what eventually became the CIA’s first covert operation: the use of “over $10 million in captured Axis funds to influence the [Italian] election [of 1948].”21 (The fundraising had begun at the wealthy Brook Club in New York; but Allen Dulles, still a Wall Street lawyer, persuaded Washington, which at first had preferred a private funding campaign, to authorize the operation through the National Security Council and the CIA.)22 Dulles’s friend Frank Wisner then left Wall Street to oversee an enlarged covert operations program through the newly created Office of Policy Co-ordination (OPC).

Dulles, still a lawyer, campaigned successfully to reconstruct Western Europe through what became known as the Marshall Plan.23Together with George Kennan and James Forrestal, Dulles also “helped devise a secret codicil [to the Marshall Plan] that gave the CIA the capability to conduct political warfare. It let the agency skim millions of dollars from the plan.”24 This created one of the earlier occasions when the CIA, directly or indirectly, recruited local assets involved in drug trafficking. AFL member Irving Brown, the assistant of AFL official Jay Lovestone (a CIA asset), was implicated in drug smuggling activities in Europe, at the same time that he used funds diverted from the Marshall Plan to establish

a “compatible left” labor union in Marseilles with Pierre Ferri-Pisani. On behalf of Brown and the CIA, Ferri-Pisani (a drug smuggler connected with Marseilles crime lord Antoine Guerini), hired goons to shellack striking Communist dock workers.25

An analogous funding source for the CIA developed in the Far East: the so-called

“M-Fund,” a secret fund of money of enormous size that has existed in Japan [in 1991] for more than forty years. The Fund was established by the United States in the immediate postwar era for essentially the same reasons that later gave rise to the Marshall Plan of assistance by the U.S. to Western Europe, including the Federal Republic of Germany….. The M-Fund was used not only for the building of a democratic political system in Japan but, in addition, for all of the purposes for which Marshall Plan funds were used in Europe.26

For at least two decades the CIA lavishly subsidized right-wing parties in countries including Japan and Indonesia, possibly still using captured Axis funds.27 (One frequently encounters the claim that the source of the M-fund was gold looted by Japan during World War Two (“Yamashita’s gold”).28

As a general rule the CIA, rather than assimilating these funds into its own budget, appears to have left them off the books in the hands of cooperative allied powers – ranging from other U.S. agencies like the Economic Cooperation Administration (ECA. set up in 1948 to administer the Marshall Plan) to oil companies to powerful drug kingpins.29 The CIA never abandoned its dependency on funds from outside its official budget to conduct its clandestine operations. In Southeast Asia, in particular, its proprietary firm Sea Supply Inc., supplied an infrastructure for a drug traffic supporting a CIA-led paramilitary force, PARU.30 The CIA appears also to have acted in coordination with slush funds from various U.S. government contracts, ranging from the Howard Hughes organization to (as we shall see) the foreign arms sales of U.S. defense corporations like Lockheed and Northrop.31

{Peter Dale Scott, a former Canadian diplomat and English Professor at the University of California, Berkeley, is the author of Drugs Oil and WarThe Road to 9/11, and The War Conspiracy: JFK, 9/11, and the Deep Politics of War. His most recent book is American War Machine: Deep Politics, the CIA Global Drug Connection and the Road to Afghanistan. His website, which contains a wealth of his writings, is here.}

1 Dana Priest and William Arkin, Top Secret America: The Rise of the New American Security State (New York: Little Brown, 2011), 52.
2 E.g. Marc Ambinder and D.G. Grady, Deep State: Inside the Government Secrecy Industry (New York: Wiley, 2013); cf. John Tirman, “The Quiet Coup: No, Not Egypt. Here,” HuffingtonPost, July 9, 2013: “Now we know: the United States of America is partially governed by a deep state, undemocratic, secret, aligned with intelligence agencies, spying on friend and foe, lawless in almost every respect.”
3 Mike Lofgren, “A Shadow Government Controls America,” Reader Supported News, February 22, 2014.
4 Grant Barrett, “A Wordnado of Words in 2013,” New York Times, December 21, 2013.
5 Peter Dale Scott, Deep politics and the death of JFK (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), 7.
6Tom Hayden discussing the crisis in Venezuela,” Tikkun, February 25, 2014.

7 To take a single telling example, six of Sam Walton’s heirs are now reportedly wealthier than the bottom 30% of Americans, or 94.5 million people (Tim Worstall, “Six Waltons Have More Wealth Than the Bottom 30% of Americans,” Forbes, December 14, 2011). Cf. the devastating picture of a disintegrating America in George Packer, The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2013).
8 See Kevin Phillips, The politics of rich and poor: wealth and the American electorate in the Reagan aftermath (New York: HarperCollins, 1991). Cf. John T. Stinson, The Reagan Legacy (Bloomington, IN: iUniverse, 2009), 146; Timothy Noah, The great divergence: America’s growing inequality crisis and what we can do about it (New York: Bloomsbury, 2012).
9 For the impact of railroads on expanded social awareness, see Benedict Anderson, Imagined communities: reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism (London: Verso, 1991).
10What is the Deep State?” On Religion [2013].
11 Gareth Jenkins, “Susurluk and the Legacy of Turkey’s Dirty War,” Terrorism Monitor, May 1, 2008; quoted in Peter Dale Scott, “9/11, Deep State Violence and the Hope of Internet Politics,” Global Research, June 11, 2008. For the Susurluk incident, see also Scott, American War Machine, 19-20, etc.
12 Scott, Deep Politics and the Death of JFK, xi-xii.
13 Lofgren, “ A Shadow Government Controls America.”
14 Quoted in Peter Dale Scott, The Road to 9/11: Wealth, Empire, and the Future of America, 1.

15 Forbes magazine founder Bertie Charles Forbes wrote six years later: “Picture a party of the nation’s greatest bankers stealing out of New York on a private railroad car under cover of darkness, stealthily riding hundred[s] of miles South, embarking on a mysterious launch, sneaking onto an island [the appropriately named Jekyll Island] deserted by all but a few servants, living there a full week under such rigid secrecy that the names of not one of them was once mentioned, lest the servants learn the identity and disclose to the world this strangest, most secret expedition in the history of American finance. I am not romancing; I am giving to the world, for the first time, the real story of how the famous Aldrich currency report, the foundation of our new currency system, was written” (B.C. Forbes, Leslie’s Weekly, October 19, 1916; in T. Cushing Daniel, Real money versus false money-bank credits; the most important factor in civilization and least understood by the people [Washington, D.C., The Monetary educational bureau, 1924], 169; cf. B.C. Forbes, Men who are making America [New York: Forbes Publishing Co., 1922], 398; cf. G. Edward Griffin, The Creature from Jekyll Island: A Second Look at the Federal Reserve [Westlake Village, CA: American Media, 1994]). Paul Warburg later wrote that “Though eighteen years have since gone by, I do not feel free to give a description of this most interesting conference, concerning which Senator Aldrich pledged all participants to secrecy” (Paul Warburg, The Federal Reserve System: Its Origin and Growth [New York, Macmillan, 1930], ZZ).

16 Congress was persuaded to provide perfunctory support of the bailout, under an alleged mysterious threat of martial law. See Peter Dale Scott, “Martial Law, the Financial Bailout, and War,” Global Research, January 8, 2009; reprinted in  Michel Chossudovsky and Andrew Gavin Marshall, eds., The Global Economic Crisis: The Great Depression of the XXI Century (Montreal, Global Research Publishers. Centre for Research on Globalization, 2010), 219-40; Llewellyn H. Rockwell, Jr., “Sen. Inhofe: [Henry] Paulsen [Secretary of the Treasury and former Chief Executive Officer of Goldman Sachs] Threatened Martial Law To Pass Bailout,”, November 20, 2008.
17 Richard Helms with William Hood A look over my shoulder: a life in the Central Intelligence Agency (New York: Random House, 2003), 82-83. Cf. Scott, American War Machine, 26-28.
18 Laurence H Shoup and William Minter, Imperial brain trust: the Council on Foreign Relations and United States foreign policy (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1977).
19 Gordon Thomas, Secret Wars: One Hundred Years of British Intelligence Inside MI5 and MI6 (New York: Thomas Dunne Books/ St. Martin’s Press, 2009), 98. This may have occurred during Dulles’s visit to Europe in the spring of 1947 (James Srodes, Dulles: Master of Spies [Washington: Henry Regnery, 1999], 392).
20 Richard Aldrich, The Hidden Hand: Britain, America, and Cold War secret intelligence (Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press, 2001), 343. Dulles also chaired the executive committee of the companion National Committee for a Free Europe (behind the Iron Curtain), whose legal affairs were handled by Sullivan and Cromwell (Wilson D. Miscamble, George F. Kennan and the Making of American Foreign Policy, 1947-1950 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992), 204.
21 Amy B. Zegart, Flawed by Design: The Evolution of the CIA, JCS, and NSC (Stanford: Stanford UP, 1999), 189; citing Christopher Andrew, For the President’s Eyes Only (New York: HarperCollins, 1995), 172; see also Church Committee, Final Report, Book 4, 28-29.
22 David Wise and Thomas B. Ross, The Espionage Establishment (New York: Random House, 1967), 166; Scott, Road to 9/11, 13.
23 “In January 1946 Dulles outlined in some detail a reconstruction plan that is one of the earliest notions of what would, a year later, be known as the Marshall Plan” (Srodes, Allen Dulles: Master of Spies, 374).
24 Tim Weiner, Legacy of ashes: the history of the CIA (New York: Doubleday, 2007), 28.

25 Douglas Valentine, “The French Connection Revisited: The CIA, Irving Brown, and Drug Smuggling as Political Warfare,” Covert Action.
26 Norbert Schlei, “Japan’s ‘M-Fund’ Memorandum, January 7, 1991,“ JPRI [Japan Policy Research Institute] Working Paper No. 11: July 1995: “Incident to the revision of the Security Treaty [in 1960], Vice President Nixon agreed to turn over exclusive control of the M-Fund to Japan. It has been alleged that this action by Nixon was part of a corrupt political bargain, whereby it was agreed that if Japan would assist him to become President of the United States, Nixon would agree to release control of the Fund to Japan and, if he became President, would return Okinawa to Japan.”
27 “C.I.A. Spent Millions to Support Japanese Right in 50’s and 60’s,” New York Times, October 9, 1994. Cf. Scott, American War Machine, 93-94, 298-99; citing Chalmers Johnson, “The 1955 System and the American Connection: A Bibliographic Introduction,” JPRI [Japan Policy Research Institute] Working Paper No. 11: July 1995.
28 Sterling Seagrave and Peggy Seagrave, Gold warriors: America’s secret recovery of Yamashita’s gold (London: Verso, 2003). Cf. Richard Hoyt, Old Soldiers Sometimes Lie (New York: Forge, 2002), 80.
29 Scott, American War Machine, 94, etc.
30 Scott, American War Machine,
31 Norman Mailer, “A Harlot High and Low: Reconnoitering Through the Secret Government,” New York, August 16, 1976 (Hughes); Michael Schaller, Altered states: the United States and Japan since the occupation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 294 (Lockheed).




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