“The mother goddess—identified by the Greeks as Cybele—took the form of an unshaped stone of black meteoric iron. This aniconic stone was removed to Rome in 204 BC.”
Fully-formed building blocks of DNA have been found in meteorites, suggesting an extraterrestrial origin for some of the chemicals deemed necessary for organic life
by Pete Spotts  /  August 12, 2011

“A team of scientists led by NASA’s Michael Callahan appears to have added some critical components to the list of space-borne building blocks raining onto Earth’s surface: a class of chemicals called nucleobases. Nucleobases combine to carry the genetic information found in DNA molecules, the molecules that orchestrate an organism’s form and functions. In results reported this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the team analyzed the chemical makeup of a dozen carbon-rich meteorites plucked from different locations in Antarctica and Australia.

They not only found nucleobases widely found in organisms on Earth, compounds such as adenine and guanine, two of the four bases found in DNA. They also found related compounds, which the team dubbed “nucleobase analogues,” that aren’t found on Earth and in effect are new to science. Over the years, scientists have found amino acids, which are needed to form proteins, with unambiguous space-based origins. And meteorites have carried the chemicals necessary to make cell walls.

Even nucleobases have been detected in meteorites before, notes Dr. Callahan. But scientists have had a hard time convincing themselves and others that the nucleobases came from space. They could represent contamination a space rock picked up after it landed. “We do see biological nucleobases in ice and soil samples” collected from the places where the meteorites were found, he says. “That’s only natural.” But, he adds, the mix and distribution of the nucleobases typically found in ice and soil are far different that those found in the meteorites the team analyzed. And those new-to-science compounds are definitely not earth contamination. “We don’t see any nucleobase analogues whatsoever” in the ice and soil, he says. Many biologically important molecules form from water, hydrogen cyanide, and ammonia – all substances that are abundant in the clouds of dust and gas that collapse to form stars and planets.

As an additional test, the team conducted simple experiments in the lab in which they mixed ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, and water and ended up with the same variety of nucleobases and nucleobase analogues they found in meteorites. They concluded that some of the key components of DNA may have been delivered to Earth ready-made by chemical reactions that took place on asteroids or comets as the solar system evolved. And if it can happen in our solar system, Callahan suggests, under the right conditions these building blocks can find their way to hospitable planets elsewhere.”

“NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows a head-on collision between two asteroids traveling about three miles per second. The collision created a meteorite that was found to contain amino acids.”
New Technique Used to Search Space Dust for Life’s Ingredients
by Bill Steigerwald   /  Goddard Space Flight Center  /  Feb 04, 2014

“While the origin of life remains mysterious, scientists are finding more and more evidence that material created in space and delivered to Earth by comet and meteor impacts could have given a boost to the start of life. Some meteorites supply molecules that can be used as building blocks to make certain kinds of larger molecules that are critical for life. Researchers have analyzed carbon-rich meteorites (carbonaceous chondrites) and found amino acids, which are used to make proteins. Proteins are among the most important molecules in life, used to make structures like hair and skin, and to speed up or regulate chemical reactions. They have also found components used to make DNA, the molecule that carries the instructions for how to build and regulate a living organism, as well as other biologically important molecules like nitrogen heterocycles, sugar-related organic compounds, and compounds found in modern metabolism.

However, these carbon-rich meteorites are relatively rare, comprising less than five percent of recovered meteorites, and meteorites make up just a portion of the extraterrestrial material that comes to Earth. Also, the building-block molecules found in them usually have been at low concentrations, typically parts-per-million or parts-per-billion. This raises the question of how significant their supply of raw material was. However, Earth constantly receives other extraterrestrial material – mostly in the form of dust from comets and asteroids. “Despite their small size, these interplanetary dust particles may have provided higher quantities and a steadier supply of extraterrestrial organic material to early Earth,” said Michael Callahan of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. “Unfortunately, there have been limited studies examining their organic composition, especially with regards to biologically relevant molecules that may have been important for the origin of life, due to the miniscule size of these samples.”

A rover hunts for meteorites at Elephant Moraine in Antarctica, the source of one of the 12 meteorites the team studied.”

Callahan and his team at Goddard’s Astrobiology Analytical Laboratory have recently applied advanced technology to inspect extremely small meteorite samples for the components of life. “We found amino acids in a 360 microgram sample of the Murchison meteorite,” said Callahan. “This sample size is 1,000 times smaller than the typical sample size used.” A microgram is one-millionth of a gram; 360 micrograms is about the weight of a few eyebrow hairs. 28.35 grams equal an ounce. “Our study was for proof-of-concept,” adds Callahan. “Murchison is a well-studied meteorite. We got the same results looking at a very small fragment as we did a much larger fragment from the same meteorite. These techniques will allow us to investigate other small-scale extraterrestrial materials such as micrometeorites, interplanetary dust particles, and cometary particles in future studies.” Callahan is lead author of a paper on this research available online in the Journal of Chromatography A.

Analyzing such tiny samples is extremely challenging. “Extracting much less meteorite powder translates into having much lower amino acid concentration for analyses,” said Callahan. “Therefore we need the most sensitive techniques available. Also, since meteorite samples can be highly complex, techniques that are highly specific for these compounds are necessary too.” The team used a nanoflow liquid chromatography instrument to sort the molecules in the meteorite sample, then applied nanoelectrospray ionization to give the molecules an electric charge and deliver them to a high-resolution mass spectrometer instrument, which identified the molecules based on their mass. “We are pioneering the application of these techniques for the study of meteoritic organics,” said Callahan. “These techniques can be highly finicky, so just getting results was the first challenge. I’m particularly interested in analyzing cometary particles from the Stardust mission,” adds Callahan. “It’s one of the reasons why I came to NASA. When I first saw a photo of the aerogel used to capture particles for the Stardust mission, I was hooked.”

“Back in the lab the scientists pulverized the carbon-rich rocks and poured them into vials for analysis with a spectrometer.”

“This technology will also be extremely useful to search for amino acids and other potential chemical biosignatures in samples returned from Mars and eventually plume materials from the outer planet icy moons Enceladus and Europa,” said Daniel Glavin of the Astrobiology lab at Goddard, a co-author on the paper. This technology and the laboratory techniques that the Goddard lab develops to apply it to analyze meteorites will be valuable for future sample-return missions since the amount of sample likely will be limited. “Missions involving the collection of extraterrestrial material for sample return to Earth usually collect only a very small amount and the samples themselves can be extremely small as well,” said Callahan. “The traditional techniques used to study these materials usually involve inorganic or elemental composition. Targeting biologically relevant molecules in these samples is not routine yet. We are not there either, but we are getting there.”
Meteorite impacts thousands of years ago may have helped to inspire ancient religion
by Jo Marchant  /  29 May 2013

“The 5,000-year-old iron bead might not look like much, but it hides a spectacular past: researchers have found that an ancient Egyptian trinket is made from a meteorite. The result, published on 20 May in Meteoritics & Planetary Science1, explains how ancient Egyptians obtained iron millennia before the earliest evidence of iron smelting in the region, solving an enduring mystery. It also hints that they regarded meteorites highly as they began to develop their religion. “The sky was very important to the ancient Egyptians,” says Joyce Tyldesley, an Egyptologist at the University of Manchester, UK, and a co-author of the paper. “Something that falls from the sky is going to be considered as a gift from the gods.”

The tube-shaped bead is one of nine found in 1911 in a cemetery at Gerzeh, around 70 kilometres south of Cairo. The cache dates from about 3,300 bc, making the beads the oldest known iron artifacts from Egypt. A study in 1928 found that the iron in the beads had a high nickel content — a signature of iron meteorites — and led to the suggestion that it was of celestial origin2. But scholars argued in the 1980s that accidental early smelting could have led to nickel-enriched iron3, and a more recent analysis of oxidized material on the surface of the beads showed low nickel content4.

To settle the argument, Diane Johnson, a meteorite scientist at the Open University in Milton Keynes, UK, and her colleagues used scanning electron microscopy and computed tomography to analyze one of the beads, which they borrowed from the Manchester Museum. The researchers were not able to cut the precious artifact open, but they found areas where the weathered surface had fallen away, providing what Johnson describes as “little windows” to the preserved metal beneath. Microscopy showed that the nickel content of this original metal was high — as much as 30% — suggesting that it did indeed come from a meteorite.

“The Gerzeh bead (top) has nickel-rich areas, coloured blue on a virtual model (bottom), that indicate a meteoritic origin.”

Backing up this result, the team observed that the metal had a distinctive crystalline structure called a Widmanstätten pattern. This structure is found only in iron meteorites that cooled extremely slowly inside their parent asteroids as the Solar System was forming. Using tomography, the researchers built up a three-dimensional model of the bead’s internal structure, revealing that the ancient Egyptians had made it by hammering a fragment of iron from the meteorite into a thin plate, then bending it into a tube.

The first evidence for iron smelting in ancient Egypt appears in the archaeological record in the sixth century bc. Only a handful of iron artifacts have been discovered in the region from before then: all come from high-status graves such as that of the pharaoh Tutankhamun. “Iron was very strongly associated with royalty and power,” says Johnson. Objects made of such divine material were believed to guarantee their deceased owner priority passage into the afterlife.

Campbell Price, a curator of Egypt and Sudan at the Manchester Museum who was not a member of the study team, emphasizes that nothing is known for certain about the Egyptians’ religious beliefs before the advent of writing. But he points out that later on, during the time of the pharaohs, the gods were believed to have bones made of iron. He speculates that meteorites may have inspired this belief, the celestial rocks being interpreted as the physical remains of gods falling to Earth. Johnson says that she would love to check whether other early Egyptian iron artifacts are of meteoritic origin — if she can get permission to study them.”

Pilgrims jostle for a chance to kiss the Black Stone at Mecca…87T

  • “The ancient Greeks held meteorites as objects of veneration. A stone held a place of honor at Apollo’s temple at Delphi–one of the most important sites of Greek religion. “The myth surrounding its location at Delphi was that Saturn (Cronos) had devoured four sons that Cybele (Rhea) had borne him, but when Zeus was born she gave him a stone in lieu of Zeus, which he proceeded to swallow. After Saturn’s dethronement, he disgorged the stone, and either he or Zeus threw it from heaven to a place that was considered the center of the Earth. Later, the site became Apollo’s temple, but the stone or omphalos remained.” (from Burke at pp 219-220).
  • A keeper of a “conical black stone” in Roman times was named Emperor in 218 AD. As Emperor Elagabalus, he insisted that the stone be an object of public worship. Perhaps it is indicative of ill omen, that he soon murdered.
  • Many other Greek and Roman temples enshrined rocks that had reportedly fallen from heaven.
  • The wall of the Ka’ba, the holiest shrine of Islam at Mecca contains a black stone that has been reported to be of meteoritic origin. The stone which measures 16 by 20 cm and is held together by a silver band. Legend has it that the angel Gabriel gave the stone to the patriarch Abraham who built it into his house. The stone passed to the prophet Mohammed who built it into the wall of the Ka’ba. The black stone is not an object of worship, but is a venerated relict. Students of the matter now believe that the black stone is not meteoric, but may be impact glass, perhaps from the meteor crater at Wabar, about 100 km from Mecca.
  • Meteorites have been found at Indian graves in the United States–including at the Hopewell Mounds–in situations suggesting that they were worshipped.
  • Many other instances of meteorite worship have been noted from Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas.”

The Worship of Meteorites, by Professor Hubert A. Newton
The Black Stone : Omphalos of the Goddess
by Bob Trubshaw / 14 February 1993

“Long-suffering readers of Mercian Mysteries will know of my obsession with ‘omphali’ – the sacred centres which each civilisation seems to create or adopt. Many of these involve stones – the Lia F il (Stone of Destiny) at Tara or the various ‘king stones’ (such as Kingston upon Thames) where medieval English kings were crowned. Our monarchs still sit on, or at least above, the Stone of Scone for their coronation. But some of these sacred stones have special interest – they are (or are said to be) black. Such Black Stones also tend to have the legend that they have fallen from the stars. Clearly, meteorites the size of these large boulders would explode into tiny fragments on impact, and also leave a substantial crater. The literal truth is not important; rather the symbolism of such stones being a link between this world and the heavens is an integral aspect of the Cosmic Axis which is invoked by all sacred centres.

Perhaps the best-known Black Stone, and now by far the most revered, is the Ka’bah at Mecca. Ka’bah means ‘cube’ and this describes the shape of the black stone structure on a marble base which stands in the centre court of the Great Mosque, Masjidul Haram, at the centre of Mecca. It stands about 50 feet high by about 35 feet wide. Set into the eastern corner is the sacred stone, covered by an elaborately embroidered black drape. As any non-moslem in the temple would be slain on sight, and photography is generally prohibited, this stone is shrouded is mystery. However, Rufus Camphausen has succeeded in tracking down three accounts of the pilgrimage to Mecca, two of which do contain photographs [1-3]. What these reveal is a polished black stone of which less than two feet is visible, set in a large, solid silver mount. The whole resembles – quite deliberately, for reasons which will emerge – the vulva of the goddess. That moslems now refer to it as the Hand of Allah does not diminish the urge for all those who complete the pilgrimage to Mecca to touch or kiss this sacred object.

The Black Stone has long since been broken and the silver band holds together the fragments. Tradition holds that it was a meteorite and the stone was white in colour when it first landed and then blackened. The faithful attribute this change in colour to the belief that the stone absorbs the sins of the pilgrims, but it is consistent with known meteorites which are white at first but oxidise over a period of time. ‘A principal sacred object in Arabian religion was the stone. . . . Such stones were thought to be the residence of a god hence the term applied to them by Byzantine Christian writers of the fifth and sixth centuries: ‘baetyl’, from bet’el, ‘the house of god’.’ [4] ‘In north Arabian temples the image of the deity sometimes stood in the open air or could be sheltered in a qubbah, a vaulted niche. . . . Not to be confused with the qubbah is the word ka’bah, for a cube-shaped walled structure which . . . served as a shelter for the sacred stones.’ [5]

Camphausen, in his article [6], reveals that the misogynic moslem religion has its origins in goddess worship. Allah is a revamped version of the ancient goddess Al’Lat, and it was her shrine which has continued – little changed – as the Ka’bah. The known history of Mohammed reveals that he was born around 570 CE into a tribe of the Quraysh, who not only worshipped the goddess Q’re but were the sworn guardians of her shrine. By 622 Mohammed was preaching the ways of his god, Allah, and was driven out by his own tribe as a result.

The triple goddess
Pre-islamic worship of the goddess seems to be primarily associated with Al’Lat, which simply means ‘goddess’. She is a triple goddess, similar to the Greek lunar deity Kore/Demeter/Hecate. Each aspect of this trinity corresponds to a phase of the moon. In the same way Al’Lat has three names known to the initiate: Q’re, the crescent moon or the maiden; Al’Uzza, literally ‘the strong one’ who is the full moon and the mother aspect; then Al’Menat, the waning but wise goddess of fate, prophecy and divination. Islamic tradition continue to recognise these three but labels them ‘daughters of Allah’.

According to Edward Rice [7] Al’Uzza was especially worshipped at the Ka’bah where she was served by seven priestesses. Her worshippers circled the holy stone seven times – once for each of the ancient seven planets – and did so in total nudity. Near the Ka’bah is the ever-flowing well, Zamzam, which cools the throats of the countless millions of pilgrims. In an oasis of always-flowing water, the Black Stone in its mount became an unmatched image of the goddess as giver of life. Only in the Indian continent do such physical symbols for the male and female generative powers – the lingam and yoni – continue to be worshipped with their original fervour.

It is easy to imagine that in pre-moslem times the goddess’s temple at Mecca was pre-eminent – whether to celebrate life, ask protection, pray for offspring. Legend tells how Abraham, unable to produce children by his wife Sarah, came here to make love to his slave Hagar. Later, when Hagar came back to give birth, she could find no water and Abraham created the holy well of Zamzam to save the life of his first son.

When Mohammed wanted to surplant Al’Lut with Allah, this was the one Temple he must conquer. Although Mohammed did conquer the Ka’bah, little else changed. The faithful still circle the Holy of Holies seven times (although, I hasten to add, now fully clothed). The priests of the sacred shrine are still known as Beni Shaybah or ‘Sons of the Old Woman’ –Shaybah being, of course, the famous Queen Sheeba of Solomon’s times. Sheeba appears under the guise of Lilith in the Near East and as Hagar (‘the Egyptian’) in the Hebrew mythology of the Old Testament. So, rewriting the legend given above, Abraham begot his son, Ishmael – the ancestor of all Arab peoples – by the goddess on the Black Stone of the Ka’bah.

While we are tracing names, Q’re (or Qure), the maiden aspect of Al’Lut, seems certain to be the origin of the Greek Kore. Camphausen suggests that the holy Koran (qur’an in Arabic) is the ‘Word of Qure’. Even moslems admit that the work existed before the time of Mohammed. Legend said it was copied form a divine prototype that appeared in heaven at the beginning of time, or the Mother of the Book [8].Al’Uzza, the mother aspect of Al’Lut, may give us the pre-dynastic Egyptian snake goddess Ua Zit, who develops into Isis.

Returning to the geomantic significance of the Ka’bah, Professor Hawkins has argued that it is exceedingly accurately aligned on two heavenly phenomena. These are the cycles of the moon and the rising of Canopus, the brightest star after Sirius. In a thirteenth-century Arabic manuscript by Mohammed ibn Abi Bakr Al Farisi it is stated that the alignment is set up for the setting crescent moon – an ancient symbol of the virgin-goddess which still appears in the national flags of many islamic nations. In some flags – Algeria, Mauritania, Tunisia and Turkey – the crescent is accompanied by a star, perhaps representing Canopus.

The Egyptian city known as Canopus seems also have been a goddess temple, as the Greek historian Strabo (63BCE-21CE) considered the place to be notorious for wild sexual activities. Such references typically refer to temples where sacred ‘prostitution’ or ritual promiscuity were part of the worship; invariably sacred objects depicting the genitals of either god and/or goddess were venerated. Such sacred promiscuity continued to be part of the Pilgrimage to Mecca, at least for some moslems. The Shi’ites from Persia were allowed to form temporary ‘marriages’ for the period of the pilgrimage. Any children born as a result were regarded as divine or as saints – a custom with worldwide parallels (English surnames such as Goodman, Jackson or Robinson perhaps derive from similar sacred unions with god in the form of Green Men characters such as Jack o’the Green or Robin Greenwood; I would also suggest that the original sense of ‘godparent’ and ‘godchild’ has similar origins.)

Deities of other cultures known to have been associated with stones include Aphrodite at Paphos, Cybele at Pessinus and later Rome, Astarte at Byblos and the famous Artemis/Diana of Ephesus. The latter’s most ancient sculpture was, it is said, carved from a black meteorite. The earliest form of Cybele’s name may have been Kubaba or Kumbaba which suggests Humbaba, who was the guardian of the forest in the Epic of Gilgamesh (the world’s oldest recorded myth from Assyria of c.2500BCE and, as scholars reveal more of the text, increasingly the source of most of the major mythological themes of later civilisations [9]) [10]. The origin of Kubaba may have been kube or kubameaning (guess what) – ‘cube’. The earliest reference we have to a goddess worshipped as a cube-shaped stone is from neolithic Anatolia [11]. Alternatively, ‘Kubaba’ may mean a hollow vessel or cave – which would still be a supreme image of the goddess. The ideograms for Kubaba in the Hittite alphabet are a lozenge or cube, a double-headed axe, a dove, a vase and a door or gate – all images of the goddess in neolithic Europe.

The stone associated with Cybele’s worship was, originally, probably at Pessinus but perhaps at Pergamum or on Mount Ida. What is certain is that in 204 BCE it was taken to Rome, where Cybele became ‘Mother’ to the Romans. The ecstatic rites of her worship were alien to the Roman temperament, but nevertheless animated the streets of their city during the annual procession of the goddess’s statue. Alongside Isis, Cybele retained prominence in the heart of the Empire until the fifth century CE; the stone was then lost. Her cult prospered throughout the Empire and it is said that every town or village remained true to the worship of Cybele [12].

Black stone at Paphos (8k)
“Aniconic black stone once venerated at the Temple of Aphrodite, near Paphos, Cyprus.”

The home of Aphrodite was at Paphos on Cyprus. Various Classical writers describe the rituals which went on her in her honour – these seem to include the practice which is now known by the disdainful term of ‘sacred prostitution’. In any event, the tapering black stone which was the object of veneration at this Temple still survives, even if it now placed inside the site museum [13]. Also on Cyprus is another highly venerated islamic site – the third most important after Mecca and Medina – the Hala Sultan Tekke. This, too, has a black rock, said to have fallen as a meteorite as part of the tritholon over the shrine. The shrine is to a woman – the aunt and foster mother of Prophet Mohammed [14]. Could this, like Mecca, have been originally a goddess shrine? Unfortunately no other clues are forthcoming. Another site stated to have a Black Stone was at Petra, but I have been unable to discover where this was or who was worshipped there – could any readers who know please write in!

To add a little local flavour, numerous standing stones in the British Isles are reputed to have fallen from the stars. The now-lost Star Stone marked the meeting of Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire; an also-vanished stone at Grimston, Leicestershire, was also said to have such an origin. However, whether or not such stones were ever associated with goddess worship we will never know.

It would take far too long to discuss to what extent the cult of the goddess’s Black Stone may have been perpetrated as Solomon’s bride in the Song of Songs, who is ‘black but beautiful’ or to come to terms with the black images of Demeter, Artemis and Isis who have their direct continuation in the Black Virgins of Europe – patrons of the troubadours, the gnostics and the alchemists, as well as the present Pope. Those who wish to follow such ideas would do well to read The Myth of the Goddess [15] which, in a sober but inspirational manner, re-evaluates how the feminine deity has remained with us throughout history.”

[Further information on these topics appears in a follow-up article by Alby Stone Goddess of the Black StoneNearly twenty years after this essay was written Robert Wenning published a paper called ‘The Betyls of Petra‘ in the Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research Vol.324 (2001), S.79–95. Grateful thanks to Agata Pasieczna for drawing my attention to Wenning’s work.]


[1] Richard Burton, A personal narrative of a pilgrimage to Al-Medinah and Meccah, London 1856.
[2] Hussein Yoshio Hirashima, The road to holy Mecca, Kodansha (Japan), 1972.
[3] Anon., Pilgrimage to Mecca, Sud-Editions (Tunis) 1978 and East-West Publications (London) 1980.
[4] Encyclopedia Brittanica.
[5] ibid.
[6] Rufus C. Camphausen, ‘The Ka’bah at Mecca’, Bres (Holland) No.139, 1989. My thanks to Rufus for bringing this article to my attention; this article of mine is in large part a synopsis of his longer work. See also ‘From behind a veil’, Flora Green, in The cauldron No.61 (reprinted from The Merrymount messenger Winter 1991).
[7] E. Rice, Easter definitions, Doubleday, 1978 (cited in Camphausen).
[8] Barbara G. Walker, The crone, Harper & Row, 1985 (cited in Camphausen).
[9] See Robert Temple’s recent translation He who saw everything, Rider, 1991.
[10] Anne Baring and Jules Cashford, The myth of the goddess, Penguin, 1991.
[11] Maarten J. Vermaseren, Cybele and Attis, trans. A.M.H. Lemmers, Thames and Hudson, 1977 (cited in Baring and Cashford, op. cit.).
[12] ibid.
[13] ‘Aphrodite’s island’, Penny Drayton, Wood & water, Vol.2, No.41, Jan 1993.
[14] ibid.
[15] Baring and Cashford, op. cit.


GEOMAGNETIC EFFECTS;year=2008;volume=11;issue=3;spage=146;epage=153;aulast=Prakash
Replications of our work on Geomagnetism and Paranormal Phenomena
by Dr. Michael A. Persinger / June 3, 2015

Question: It has been said that your work on the effects of geomagnetic variables on paranormal phenomena “has not been replicated”. Is this true?

Answer: No; Our results have been replicated repeatedly. Confused claims that my work (on the effects of geomagnetic influences on paranormal phenomena) has not been replicated are based on the mistaken belief that its based on experiments. Instead, the results are based on statistical analyses (replication procedures are for experiments) correlating a wide range of data with geomagnetic states. To validate a statistical study, one has only to obtain the data, and perform the calculations. The “geomagnetic effect” has been found in a variety of anecdotal data throughout recorded history. The experimental dream psi studies from Ullmann and Krippner (1970) were done almost 50 years ago. For decades after that, groups of researchers, including myself and my colleagues, have investigated the contributions of the geomagnetic field to paranormal phenomena. Each working independently, we have replicated and extended one another’s work. There are a few differences in what we’ve found. Replication and significant convergences in results are commonplace in this field.

Spottiswoode (1997) reported that unusually high effect sizes may be observed in trials with anomalous cognition (PSI, ESP, etc) occurring during specific windows in sidereal time when geomagnetic fluctuations are also minimal. This confirms our finding that geomagnetic quiet is conducive to these kinds of experiences. The same author (1990) also reported negative correlations between scores in free response anomalous cognition experiments and geomagnetic fluctuations, confirmed in four datasets which showed significant anomalous cognition. Adrian Ryan has explored the correlations we have seen between geophysical activity and hypothesized that ESP effects may be due to geomagnetic pulsations, a line of research that both replicates and extends some of our efforts (Ryan, 2008).

Researchers Haraldsson and Gissurarson (1987) studied the scores from 70 Ganzfeld sessions (telepathy-clairvoyance) and found they related significantly to high geomagnetic activity of the day prior to the experimental sessions but not to the geomagnetic activity during the day of the sessions. The same relationship was found in experiments which consisted mostly of 80 trials with clairvoyance computer games per subject. Their results partially confirmed our earlier findings that spontaneous paranormal experience tend to occur on a day of low geomagnetic activity which is preceded by days of high geomagnetic activity.

Lipniki (2009) replicated the geomagnetic effect without referring to psi effects in a case report where dreams from low geomagnetic activity periods were found to be significantly more bizarre than dreams from periods with high geomagnetic activity . Another case history implies a strong correlation between sleep paralysis and geomagnetic quiet. Conesa (1995) reported that periods of relatively quiet geomagnetic activity were significantly associated with an increased incidence of sleep paralysis episodes, and also (Conesa, 1997) dream vividness. Moturi et al., (2013) also noted correlations between geomagnetic states and sleep paralysis.

In a study done during the quietest geomagnetic year in a century, small correlations were found with male subjects, who showed higher psi scores when the geomagnetic field was more active. However, in confirmation of our results, the participants with the highest temporal lobe questionnaire scores showed the strongest correlation of psi with geomagnetic activity (Roney-Dougal, 2014).

This corroborates our early finding that PSI effects are most probable during times of geomagnetic quiet. We have published several papers showing this effect, including a meta-analysis spanning 60 years of studies (Berger, 1991). It also replicates our result that Temporal Lobe Signs are higher for people reporting PSI skills and experiences. (Persinger, 1990)

The “geomagnetic” effect as inferred from solar wind velocity was reported by Randall and Randall (1991), who examined data from the 19th century on hallucinations and magnetic disturbances. These were found to exhibit a direct and statistically significant correlation. It’s easy to see how this corroborates our work correlating geomagnetic activity with paranormal, PSI, ESP and other anomalous experiences when we recall that changes in solar winds are one of the primary sources for geomagnetic variations.

Our work with the effects of elevated magnetic field strengths (rather than geomagnetic activity) has been replicated by JJ Braithwaite (2004), who reported that That “the overall magnetic field strength (amplitude) is greater at areas of interest [areas generating higher numbers of reports of paranormal perceptions] relative to baseline areas”. The same researcher (2005) observed the same effect in a “haunted bedroom”. This corroborated and extended of our results in it’s observation of “large static inhomogeneous magnetic field and complex temporal distortions in the time-varying (AC) magnetic fields”. We have seen (Persinger, 1997) that similarly anisotropic structures within both the geomagnetic field and in our complex magnetic stimulation fields also contribute to their subjective effects.

GCMS Magnetometer – The Schumann Resonances Power graph summarizes the information presented in the Spectrogram Calendar and illustrates the dynamic changes occurring in the Schumann Resonances region of the magnetic field. Power is the sum of the power in all frequencies detected by the site magnetometer from 0.32 to 36 Hertz and is calculated for every hour. A 24-hour moving average of this power data is plotted for each site and updated hourly.”

Our work on the association between geomagnetic and paranormal phenomena has also been replicated by Roll (2000) who made recordings of the local geomagnetic fields (GMFs), electromagnetic fields (EMFs), and ion densities in putatively haunted locations. On the basis of previous studies he predicted that the sites would exhibit anomalous EMFs or GMFs. Ten out of twelve of the sites did show such anomalies.

It’s also worth noting that in addition to the paranormal and ESP effects noted above, the scientific literature includes many studies of the effects of geomagnetic activity on medical and psychiatric disorders and issues. These include stress (Rapoport, 1998 ), suicide (Berk, 2005), blood pressure (Dimitrova, 2004) psychiatric admissions (Raps, 1992), stroke (Feigin, 2014), changes in EEG profiles (Novik, 2013) and errors in performing laboratory tasks (Binhi, 2009). The geomagnetic field makes these effects more likely, but doesn’t cause them.

by Ewen Callaway  /  April 2009

“Darren Lipnicki, a psychologist formerly at the Center for Space Medicine in Berlin, Germany, found a correlation between the bizarreness of his dreams, recorded over eight years, and extremes in local geomagnetic activity. Other studies have tied low geomagnetic activity to increases in the production of the melatonin, a potent hormone that helps set the body’s circadian clock. So, based on anecdotal evidence that melatonin supplements used as a sleeping aid can cause off-kilter dreams, Lipnicki wondered whether local magnetic fields could induce the same effects. Between 1990 and 1997, he kept meticulous records of his nightly reveries, amassing a total 2387 written accounts during his teenage years. “I always wanted to do science with them,” he says.

For the study, he devised a five-point scoring system to rate the bizarreness of these dreams. On the low end are dreams completely representative of reality – “I am sitting at a table doing some maths or physics homework,” for instance. Dreams that scored a three could happen, but seemed unlikely. For example: “A friend is in the backyard of my house, building a wooden platform atop of 7-foot high stilts.” The most bizarre dreams that Lipnicki recorded had little or no connection with reality: “I was stranded on a foreign coastline with a monkey that spoke English and a woman that suddenly became small, almost doll-sized. Then I was at home.” Lipnicki looked up daily geomagnetic activity in Perth, Australia – his home at the time. A scale called the k-index quantifies local geomagnetic activity, and he included only days that scored on the extremes of this index. This whittled his dream log down to 66 days of low geomagnetic activity and 70 days of high activity. Using these figures, Lipnicki uncovered a statistical correlation between dream bizarreness and geomagnetic activity, with freakier dreams occurring on days with the least geomagnetic activity. Of course, this correlation doesn’t prove that the Earth’s magnetic activity determines whether we dream of a mundane day at the park or something more like an LSD trip. But a larger and better controlled study may be worth pursuing, Lipnicki says. “At this stage, it’s just putting the idea out there.”

Journal reference: Medical Hypotheses (DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2009.01.047)

New insights into the links between ESP and geomagnetic activity
by Adrian Ryan, in the Journal of Scientific Exploration, Fall 2008

“A database of 343 free-response ESP trials conducted at centers in the U.K. was constructed in order to test the hypothesis that the relatively fast varying components of geomagnetic activity, geomagnetic pulsations, might be driving the reported associations between ESP, geomagnetic activity and local sidereal time. Local geomagnetic field-strength measurements taken at 1-second intervals during 99 trials, and at 5-second intervals during 244 trials, were converted by fast Fourier transform into power within five frequency bands. Two patterns were observed: ESP was found to succeed only during periods of enhanced pulsation activity within the 0.2-0.5 Hz band, but ESP effect was absent during the most disturbed periods of activity in the 0.025-0.1 Hz band. The pattern of ESP effect by local sidereal time was similar to that found by Spottiswoode (1997b), and this shape was found to be attributable to the pattern of ESP results by pulsation activity in the 0.2-0.5 Hz band. The observed patterns were demonstrated to have excellent explanatory power in terms of accounting for findings previously reported in the literature.”

96 hours of magnometer data from three different station from September 2001. (measurements of the earth’s magnetic field.) There appears to be a connection between human activity and the earth’s magnetic field.  So here we have humans reacting to earth magnetic activity and the earth’s magnetic field reacting to human activity.”

by Stanley Krippner, PhD, Saybrook Institute / 1996

“Parapsychology studies reports of anomalous behaviors and experiences, i.e. reported “psi.” Many parapsychologists have attempted to find neurological correlates or potential mechanisms for those reported events that they believe stand outside of known explanatory mechanisms. This line of study may play an important role in determining what “reserve capacities” characterize the brain and how they might improve the human condition.

Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and experience; parapsychology (or “psi research”) studies those reported anomalies of behavior and experience that appear to stand outside of the currently known explanatory mechanisms which account for organism- environment and organism- organism information and influence flow. Over the past century, considerable research has been conducted in an attempt to understand these reports and to determine whether they are worthy of continued attention and investigation (Rao & Palmer, 1987). The Parapsychological Association (1985), an international body of scientific investigators in the field, has emphasized that “a commitment to the study of psi phenomena does not require assuming the reality of ‘non- ordinary’ factors or processes.” Despite this cautionary statement, parapsychology has been referred to by some critics as a “pseudoscience” (Stanovich,1985) or a “deviant science” (Ben- Yehuda, 1985).

To understand this criticism, it must be recalled that Western science emerged from philosophy and originally proclaimed itself as the search for the understanding of nature. As this quest became more disciplined, greater demands were placed upon scientific undertakings. Today there is a demand by some critics that psi research produce “replicable” psi experiments and “battle- tested” results before it can be considered a legitimate science. At one level of investigation, there already are “replications” and “battle- tested” results, specifically the finding that about 50% of an unselected group will report having had a “psychic experience,” supposedly involving those psi phenomena that have been given such labels as “telepathy,” “clairvoyance,” “precognition,” and “psychokinesis.” This percentage may vary from one culture, age group, and educational level to the next, but it has been repeated, in one study after another, for the last several decades.

These experiences have been ignored or ridiculed by most behavioral and social scientists despite the recent findings indicating that this type of experience “is not only potentially significant for our personal lives, but that it also serves important functions in our society as a whole” (Neher, 1990). Subjective psi experiences interface with heightened sensitivities, creative imagery, self- regulation of body processes, and increased memory, allowing science an expanded vision of what can be called “reserve human capacities.” Therefore, the case for psi research is simply that an understanding of these reported experiences is worthy of significant research efforts.

The Society for Psychical Research, founded in Great Britain in 1882, was the first major organization to attempt to assess psi scientifically, beginning with surveys that would later evolve into controlled experiments. The “Report on the Census of Hallucinations,” organized by members of the society, analyzed and categorized some 17,000 responses to the question, “Have you ever…had a vivid impression of seeing, or being touched…, or of hearing a voice; which impression, so far as you could discover, was not due to any external cause?” Affirmative answers were obtained from about one in ten of the respondents, with more visual hallucinations reported than auditory or tactile hallucinations (Sidgwick, Sidgwick, & Johnson, 1894).

Psi Research and Dream Studies
The use of case studies has allowed the examination of accounts described in greater depth than those solicited by surveys and questionnaires. The best known of these collections is that of Louisa E. Rhine (1977); by 1973, her collection of spontaneous cases of alleged psi numbered 12,837. The overall objective of Rhine’s studies was to study the basic psi process; for example, she identified the main form in which psi is expressed as hallucinations, intuitions, realistic dreams, and non- realistic dreams (marked by symbolism and fantasy). Ian Stevenson (1970) has presented an intensive study of 35 cases of “telepathic impressions,” concluding that they shared the same characteristics as did those collected in earlier decades. For example, “a relationship, not just an individual, is necessary for such experiences to occur.”

Contemporary parapsychologists would agree that survey responses, questionnaire responses, and case studies are subject to such confounding variables as coincidence, unconscious inference, sensory leakage, exaggeration after the fact, falsification of memory, and outright fabrication. However, these anecdotal reports, especially those collected by Rhine, stimulated Ullman and Krippner (Ullman & Krippner, with Vaughan, 1989) to investigate anomalous dreams in a laboratory setting. Ullman, Krippner, and their associates obtained results suggesting that some subjects could incorporate distant pictorial material (that had been randomly selected once the subjects had gone to bed) into their dreams at statistically significant levels. For example, one subject dreamed about going to Madison Square Garden to buy tickets to a boxing match. On that same night, a psychologist in a distant room had been focusing his attention on a painting of a boxing match.

These experiments were conducted at Maimonides Medical Center in Brooklyn, New York, during the 1960s and 1970s. The laboratory’s basic research procedure was to fasten electrodes to the head of a subject, take him or her to a soundproof room, then randomly select a sealed, opaque envelope containing an art print. A psychologist would then take the envelope to a distant room, open it, and study the art print while the laboratory subject (in bed and asleep) attempted to incorporate material from the art print into his or her dreams without ever seeing it. Upon completion of an experimental study, outside judges compared the typed dream reports with the total collection of art prints, attempting to identify the print used on the night of each experiment (e.g., Krippner & Ullman, 1970). About two out of three times, these experimental sessions obtained statistically significant results, with odds against chance so great that coincidence was unlikely.

Such prominent dream researchers as David Foulkes (Belvedere & Foulkes, 1971), Gordon Globus (Globus et al., 1968), Calvin Hall (1967), Robert Van de Castle (1971), and Keith Hearne (1987) attempted to repeat these findings. Because the replication rate from these other laboratories was inconsistent, the Maimonides team did not claim to have conclusively demonstrated that communication in dreams can sometimes transcend space and time. However, they did open a promising line of investigation. Years later, Stanley Krippner and Michael Persinger, a Canadian neuroscientist, reviewed the entire body of dream research data from Maimonides Medical Center, selecting the first night that each subject in a telepathy experiment had visited the laboratory. They matched the results of these nights with geomagnetic data, discovering that the subjects’ telepathy “hits” tended to be higher during calm nights than during nights marked by electrical storms and high sunspot activity (Persinger & Krippner, 1989).

Persinger (1974) has urged using reported psi phenomena in new and ingenious ways, observing, “Across cultures and throughout history people have been reporting psi- experiences. Let us find out what they are saying….It is by looking at the similarities of the verbal behavior that we may find enough consistencies to understand the factors responsible for the reports (p. 13). Persinger (e.g., Schaut & Persinger, 1985) has examined several collections of spontaneous cases, including the 35 gathered by Stevenson (1970), reporting that they seem to occur most frequently when geomagnetic activity is calmer than the days before or after the experience – – and lower than the month’s average activity. This approach can be applied to any collection of cases (e.g., Persinger & Krippner, 1989) where the date of the alleged experience has been recorded. If repeatable, these effects may help to provide an understanding of the mechanisms underlying psi phenomena, and may even indicate a potentially predictable pattern for such events.

Psi Experiences and the Brain
A brain- based model of psi experience was proposed in the 1880s by several of the founders of the British Society for Psychical Research (Gurney, Myers, & Podmore, 1886). They proposed that these experiences were constructed by the brain from its own resources (or what might be called “reserve capacities”) once the initiating stimulus (e.g., a randomly selected picture in a laboratory test, a real- life crisis situation involving a loved one) sets the constructive mechanisms in motion. This model is surprisingly congruent with concepts of memory hypothesized a century later. One model holds that memory is “stored” in the brain’s cortex, specific memories are evoked by either external stimulation or the lower brain’s firing patterns, and the context of the stimuli can access an entire sequence of memories (Teyler & DiScenna, 1984).

Elizabeth Loftus (1980) adds that incoming information enters short- term memory where it can either be forgotten or maintained by rehearsal and successfully transferred to long- term memory. Retrieving information from long- term memory depends upon cues that enable people to check different parts of for the required material. Morton F. Reiser (1990) uses the term “nodal networks” to describe how memories are stored. These networks of mental representations (e.g., images, words) are organized by “affective links” (e.g., emotions, feelings), and often lead into “associative trains” that enable the retrieval of very early life events. During sleep, the pontine brain stem’s periodic firing patterns stimulate the upper brain, primarily the visual- motor cortex, resulting in imagery that congeals into a dream (Hobson, 1988). Often, these evoked images contain affect that links them with an important life event from the past through their “associate trains,” resulting in a scenario that may be useful in psychotherapy or self- development (Krippner & Dillard, 1988).

Very little work has been done with the physiological basis for the manifestation of psi in dreams. Perhaps the initiating stimulus (e.g., the laboratory picture, the real- life event) influences the pontine area’s firing pattern, evoking mental representations in the cortex that produces a “match” that engenders conviction that chance factors were not at work. Perhaps the holographic nature of the brain (Pribram, 1971) enables the dreamer to “reach out” to incorporate the stimulus which is then “matched” with an appropriate memory. In the Maimonides dream experiments, the “matches” were often direct (as in the case of the Madison Square Garden dream). But sometimes they were symbolic, as when the randomly selected picture was a dead gangster in a coffin and the dream focused on a dead rat in a cigar box. And, quite frequently, other memories seemed to confound the psi effect in dreams; the “associate trains” described by Reiser may have led to a waking life experience that “matched” the initiating stimulus but the corresponding images were amalgamated with other material that was unrelated to the laboratory picture.

The research strategies initiated by Persinger eventually may help to answer these questions. For example, he combined two early British surveys of purported telepathy (Gurney, Myers, & Podmore, 1886; Sidgwick, Sidgwick, & Johnson, 1894) with more recent accounts appearing in @I{Fate} magazine (Persinger & Schaut, 1988), all of which included the date of the incident. The spontaneous experiences were more likely to have occurred at times when the environment was calm rather than during times marked by electrical storms and high sunspot activity. These geomagnetic field perturbations have been reported to affect biological systems by other investigators (e.g., Subrahmanyam, Sanker Narayan, & Srinivasan, 1985). Persinger (1989) has proposed two interpretations of the geomagnetic field effect. The first is that psi is a geomagnetic field correlate; solar disturbances and consequent geomagnetic storms affect this correlate. The second is that the geomagnetic field affects brain receptivity to psi, which remains constant. In the latter interpretation, psi is always present in space and time, waiting to be accessed by crisis, emotion, or by optimal laboratory stimulus parameters. Geomagnetic activity may affect the detection capacity of the brain for this information, especially the neural pathways that facilitate the consolidation and conscious access to this information. Without this geomagnetic activity, awareness of the psi stimulus might not be as likely and the brain’s “latent reserve capacities” would not be utilized.

Taking this argument one step further, Persinger (1989) points out that deep temporal lobe activity exists in equilibrium with the global geomagnetic condition. When there is a sudden decrease in geomagnetic activity, there appears to be an enhancement of processes that facilitate psi reception, especially telepathy and clairvoyance. Increases in geomagnetic activity may suppress pineal melatonin levels and contribute to reductions of cortical seizure thresholds. Indeed, melatonin is correlated with temporal lobe- related disorders such as depression and seizures. Persinger has postulated that increased geomagnetic activity may contribute to expressive psi, such as spontaneous or laboratory psychokinesis. Some research data (e.g., Braud & Dennis, 1989) support this conjecture and Gertrude R. Schmeidler (1994, p. 216) has proposed that a psychokinesis subject who is more “aroused” (by the geomagnetic activity) would be more effective.

Some parapsychologists specialize in studying purported survival of bodily death, and the apparitions of loved ones reported by the bereaved. Because of melatonin’s association with cortical seizures, Persinger hypothesized that bereavement apparitions would be more evident during times of increased geomagnetic activity. Such increases would suppress melatonin levels and contribute to reductions of cortical seizure thresholds, enabling access to cortical memory fragments such as appear in reports of ghosts, phantoms, and other images of dead relatives or loved ones. Persinger’s (1988) analysis of over 200 such reports indicated that they tended to occur on days when the geomagnetic activity had increased as compared to the days before and afterwards.

According to Persinger (1989) the stimulation parameters of the human brain’s amygdala and hippocampus place them in a unique position to mediate psi experiences. The coherence of endogenous periods of single neurons or groups of neurons within the hippocampus increases the likelihood that they could be “driven” or influenced by external electromagnetic fields of similar pulse or natural frequency. There are also differences in resonance as a function of the sensitivity of the person’s brain; the ordinary amygdaloid period is about 4 cycles per second while the comparable period of a person with limbic epilepsy is around 9 cycles per second.

Of particular relevance to psi is the capacity for the hippocampus to show long term potentiation, the first step to memory. A 400 cycles per second electrical stimulation of only 1 second can lead to semipermanent changes in electrical activity and produce observable growth of dendritic spines within 10 minutes. Such quick plasticity indicates that only a few seconds of the appropriate psi- related stimulus could evoke permanent changes in brain microstructures and hence modify memory Once the memory is consolidated it could appear as “real” as memory acquired by more traditional pathways.

Psi and the Temporal Lobes
The two temporal lobes of the brain constitute about 40% of the higher functioning area called the cerebrum; thus, there may be a greater potential for dysfunction or anomalous functioning of the temporal lobes than for other lobes. The temporal lobes are well situated for integrating perceptual stimuli of all kinds as well as for integrating various aspects of such cognitive functions as memory, learning, language, sense of self, in addition to emotional, sexual, and aggressive functions. Because of these capacities, psi experiences could also be integrated in the temporal lobes (Neppe, 1990).

The deep structures of the temporal lobes are the most electrically unstable portions of the human brain, and temporal lobe lability can be modified by such techniques as meditation. The contribution of temporal lobe processes to psi phenomena have two important implications. First, the phenomenological characteristics of psi experiences, especially spontaneous ones, could well be dominated by the functions of the temporal lobes. Such evidence is clearly seen in the propensity for spontaneous psi experiences to involve dreams, waking imagery, and intense affect that attributes the experience with intense personal meaningfulness (Persinger, 1974). Secondly, the electrical lability of the temporal lobes means that many other stimuli could both compete for neural substrates that facilitate psi experiences as well as simulating experiences resembling psi.

For example, no other brain condition stimulates spontaneous psi- like experiences as closely as does limbic temporal lobe epilepsy. If the discharge remains within one lobe and does not propagate to motor regions, no epileptic convulsion occur. In fact, the observer might not realize the person is experiencing an electrical seizure; nevertheless, there are often clear experiential phenomena that are generated even without after- discharges (Persinger, 1989). However, it would be a mistake to assume that psi experiences are a form of limbic epilepsy; for one thing, psi phenomena are frequently reported during normal nighttime dreaming but epilepsy is amplified and abnormal. Furthermore, the trigger for a psi experience is an external event while an internal event evokes an epileptic seizure. Nevertheless, their many similarities provide an opportunity for further study.

Persinger (1989) attempted such an investigation by examining the British collections of spontaneous telepathy and clairvoyance reports as well as the Fate magazine reports,finding that the peak displays of spontaneous psi experiences were reported to have occurred between 2:00 a.m. and 4:00 a.m. with a secondary peak around 9:00 p.m. to 11:00 p.m. These were exactly the hours when temporal lobe seizures were most frequently reported before anticonvulsants were introduced into medicine. However, a further peak occurs at 4:00 p.m. (Persinger & Schaut, 1988); this peak is not congruent with the data on temporal lobe seizures.

Jan Ehrenwald (1975) was an early explorer of possible linkages between purported psi and deficits in brain functioning that might allow an organism to receive psi- related information. William Roll (1977; Lowe & Roll, 1988) has been another pioneer in the investigation of possible connections between epilepsy and psychokinesis. In one survey of 78 students, he found an increased incidence of olfactory or auditory hallucinatory experiences among the 10 people reporting the highest frequency of purported psi experiences. In this regard, Vernon N. Neppe (1990) has noted that patients with apparent temporal lobe dysfunctions often claim vivid psi- related experiences. He has developed the Neppe Temporal Lobe Questionnaire which probes for descriptions of possible temporal lobe symptoms such as auditory hallucinations (“hearing voices”), as well as nonspecific symptoms such as depersonalization. Neppe administered the questionnaire to 6 people who had reported psi- like experiences and 6 others who had not reported these experiences; none of his subjects had major psychiatric histories. The former group had an average of 6.2 temporal lobe symptoms, the latter group had an average of 0.3, and the difference was statistically significant. The association between temporal lobe symptoms and reported psi- like experiences may suggest a state of physiological continuity of anomalous temporal lobe functioning. These brain processes may lay the groundwork for anomalous experiences and the resulting verbal reports. The independent existence of temporal lobe symptoms implies that the verbal reports of presumed psi are not an inevitable consequence of the brain condition. Nor are these reports limited to people with temporal lobe symptoms; Neppe (1990) interviewed 4 spiritualist mediums, analyzing their olfactory imagery, as well as similar olfactory imagery reported by the 6 subjects in his earlier study. A large proportion of these smells were pleasant in nature, and were often described as “perfumed” and “flowery”; pleasant olfactory hallucinations are rarely associated with temporal lobe epilepsy.

Michael Winkelman (1992) studied the ethnographic and phenomenological reports of native shamans’ and shamanic healers’ altered states of consciousness, finding evidence of temporal lobe discharges. The little data resulting from a direct assessment of this hypothesis detected epilepsy in the Wapogoro tribe of East Africa (Jilek- aall, 1973). Winkelman (1992) also found links between temporal lobe symptoms and reports of spirit “possession” by native mediums. In both groups, there were frequent instances of amnesia, tremors, convulsions, compulsive motor behavior, and other signs that would fall on what Neppe called the “physiological continuity of anomalous temporal lobe functioning.”

Psi and Other Brain Areas
In contrast to the temporal lobes, there is little evidence or logic for claiming that an important role is played by other cerebral cortex areas. However, the frontal lobes, as the executive of the cognitive- motor cortex, could logically be associated with psychokinesis. The occipital lobes are likely candidates for apparitions, “visions,” and perceptions of so- called “auras” because of their involvement in visual associations. The parietal lobes are involved in visual- spatial distortions such as those that characterize some reports of presumptive psi (Neppe, 1983). As a result of an analysis of members of two families with temporal lobe dysfunction whose members reported psi- like experiences, Neppe suggested that there may be familial predispositions to presumptive psi phenomena (Hurst & Neppe, 1981).

Persinger (1989) laments the paucity of literature on brain asymmetry and psi processes. The right hemisphere of the cerebral cortex is more specialized for detection of the spatial relationship between stimulus configurations and their affective associations rather than the accuracy of detail. Linguistically and analytically, the left hemisphere is more active (Budzynski, 1986), although there are notable exceptions (e.g., many left handed people, native speakers of Japanese and other languages that incorporate sounds resembling those found in nature). A few parapsychological experiments have utilized target material and conditions geared toward activating the left hemisphere, often obtaining statistically significant results (e.g., Braud & Braud, 1977).

Other parapsychological experiments have compared “left hemisphere psi tasks” to “right hemisphere psi tasks,” while still others examined hemispheric dominance during psi tests by recording the eye movements of subjects while they made their responses; when the results of these studies attained statistical significance, they favored the right hemisphere (Schmeidler, 1990, pp. 149- 150). In one innovative study, Robert F. Quider (1984) randomly assigned 40 subjects to four conditions: two with “suggestopedic” instructions for relaxation and visualization (one with music, one with no music) and two without those instructions (one with music and one with no music). Psi scores did not show an effect of these instructions, but were significantly higher with music than without music.

This line of investigation might yield worthwhile results in view of the close connection often reported between mental imagery and presumptive psi (George & Krippner, 1984). For example, Sheryl Wilson and T.X. Barber (1982) studied 26 individuals with vivid mental imagery. In comparison with 25 control subjects, the “eidetikers” not only were better hypnotic subjects and engaged in more fantasy both as children and adults, but claimed to have had more clairvoyant, precognitive, and telepathic experiences. In addition, they reported more “out- of- body” experiences, lucid dreams, experiencing of apparitions, seeing “auras,” and having mystical visions.

In the meantime, several parapsychological studies have attempted to identify the brain events that accompany psi, primarily “hits” on telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition tests. At first, researchers examined brain waves as identified by EEG technology; the ensuing records show gross activity in a brain area. Three major types of brain waves have been studied: alpha (slow, regular waves typical of relaxed states of casual scanning), beta (rapid, irregular waves found in alert attention), theta (regular waves, slower than alpha, found in deep relaxation or during some types of mental imagery). Once more sensitive EEGs were developed it was possible to study the complex form of a single brain response measured in milliseconds; this is referred to as the “evoked response.”

Some relation has been found between psi “hits” and alpha activity (Schmeidler, 1994, p. 147). When evoked response analysis was done with so- called “gifted” subjects, the 100- millisecond component of the evoked response sometimes, but not always, showed a significant response to psi stimuli (Warren, McDonough, & Don, in press; May, Luke, Trask, & Frivold, 1992).

The Spectrogram Calendar displays data from the magnetic field detectors deployed by the Global Coherence Initiative research team to monitor the resonances occurring in the plasma waves constantly circling the earth in the ionosphere. These daily spectrograms show the activity occurring at the various resonant frequencies from 1 to 50 Hz. Within the spectrogram, the power, or intensity level of each frequency is displayed as a color, with yellow being the most intense. The Schumann resonances appear as the horizontal lines at 7.8, 14, 20, 26, 33 & 39 Hz. In this calendar, each day begins at midnight UTC (Coordinated Universal Time).”

“Postmodern” Science and Psi Research
Parapsychology has pioneered research into several aspects of human behavior and experience that are now a part of mainstream psychology, e.g., hypnosis, multiple personalities, anomalous healing. Other topics investigated by the early societies for psychical research (e.g., lucid dreaming, near- death experiences, out- of- body experiences) are beginning to enter the psychological mainstream and the mechanisms for these phenomena are on their way to becoming understood. Perhaps telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition, and psychokinesis someday will travel the same road. The prefix “para” does not exclude ordinary mechanisms for psi phenomena. Neher (1990) observes that “parapsychology” simply means “alongside of” the mainstream of psychology. After reviewing the two fields, Collins and Pinch (1982) conclude that “there is…nothing in psychology that definitely makes parapsychology unscientific.” They also claim that “it has not been demonstrated decisively that there are any specific physical principles that conflict with parapsychology.” Truzzi (198O) would consider parapsychology to be a “legitimate scientific enterprise” whether or not psi actually exists because parapsychologists employ such scientific methods as target randomization, double- blind judging, control groups, and statistical tests. For Leahy and Leahy (1983),”methodologically, parapsychology is a science; substantially,the verdict is still out.”

This situation illustrates Foucault’s (1980) observations that power permeates all aspects of science’s efforts to obtain knowledge, that scientific legitimacy is inherently political, and that this politicized scientific legitimacy results in definitions, categorizations, and classifications that construct “reality.” Some knowledge comes to be considered “legitimate” in historically specific times and places (Lather, 1990) while some knowledge falls by the wayside. The aphorism “knowledge is power” could easily be reversed: Power (e.g., political, economic, ideological, religious) determines what is considered to be “knowledge” (and therefore “reality”) in any given temporal and spatial location. I would apply Foucault’s insights to psi research; knowledge accumulated by parapsychologists about anomalous events lacks any type of power base; as a result it fails to be “legitimate” and to play a role in mainstream scientific discourse.

“Postmodern” scientists are fond of pointing out that “modern” science holds that only two “stories” about consciousness are credible: “central- state materialism” and the “new epiphenomenalism.” Central- state materialism holds that all mental and physical events can be explained by physical science and its laws. There is an “identity” between mind and brain that will eventually enable all conditions arising in mentation and behavior to be reduced to physics and chemistry. The “new epiphenomenalism” holds that mental and physical events exist as two distinct domains but most (if not all) mental events exist in a causal relationship with physical events, even “emerging” from conditions that obey the laws of physics and chemistry (Campbell, 1984).

“Postmodern” science, on the other hand, attempts to bypass the mind/body dualism that has characterized “modern” Western science. For example, Charles Laughlin (Laughlin, McManus, & d’Aquili, 1990) has rejected both central- state materialism and the new epiphenomenalism as inappropriate to the phenomena they are trying to address. Rather, he advocates a “structural monism” which holds that mind and body (including experience and behavior) are two imperfect ways of perceiving and knowing the same unknown totality we may call “being.” “Spiritual awareness” is one way of knowing the being; “physical” awareness is another way of knowing the being. Neither the more spiritual disciplines (theology, psi research, transpersonal psychology, anthropology, etc.) nor the more physical disciplines (physics, chemistry, physiology, etc.) can claim to be complete representations or explanations of realize as required by central- state materialism….Furthermore, consciousness does not neatly divide itself into spiritual (noncausal) and mundane (causal) attributes (as required for the new epiphenomenalism.

The structural monist holds that “mind” and “body” (or”mind” and “brain”) are two views of the same reality. “Mind” is how “brain” experiences its own functioning, and “brain” provides the structure of “mind.” From this perspective, neither the social and psychological sciences nor the neurosciences can be considered as complete accounts of consciousness. Reality is simultaneously composed of many levels, none of which is fundamental. But these levels are born of the analytic mind trying to make sense of an essentially undifferentiated field of systemically related processes. In this manner, Laughlin opens the door to transpersonal considerations, claiming that without them the accounting of consciousness in all its richness would be incomplete.

Chaotic systems analysis is one approach mentioned by Laughlin; it is a research method favored by some postmodernists. Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics that specializes in the study of processes that seem so complex that at first they do not appear to be governed by any known laws of principles, but which actually have an underlying order describable by vector calculus and its associated geometry. Examples of chaotic processes include water flowing in a stream or crashing at the bottom of a waterfall, changes in animal populations, and electroencephalographic (EEG) changes in the brain. From the perspective of chaos theory, brain activity during epilepsy is less “chaotic” than normal brain functioning; indeed, the EEG of an epileptic is extremely regular just preceding a @I{petit mal} seizure (Pool, 1989). Krippner (1994) has suggested the bifurcations between various chaotic and non- chaotic attractors might underlie the sleep changes noted by sleep researchers (e.g., Hobson, 1988), with rapid eye movement sleep being more complex chaotically than non- rapid eye movement sleep. The lower dimensionality or greater order of rapid eye movement sleep can be seen from the narrative the dreamer later attributes to the dream. Periodic attractors might represent an attempt to elicit additional images from the dreamer’s memory bank that would facilitate the continuation of a story that is more coherent and more psychologically useful to the dreamer. Because both geomagnetic activity and rapid eye movement sleep are potentially chaotic systems, there would be ample opportunities for psi to enter this confluence of systems, especially if psi itself is chaotic.

Psi research may find greater receptivity on the part of “postmodern” scientists than it has from “modern” scientists. In the meantime, the Parapsychological Association (1989) has made it clear that “labelling an event as a psi phenomenon does not constitute an explanation for an event, but only indicates an event for which a scientific explanation needs to be sought. Furthermore, “Regardless of what form the final explanation may take…, the study of these phenomena is likely to expand our understanding of the processes often referred to as ‘consciousness’ and ‘mind’ and of the nature of disciplined inquiry….” Therefore, the essential touchstones for parapsychologists include the need to stress the speculative nature of the field, to be candid about its controversial status, and not to go beyond what is warranted by the evidence. However, this modesty should be combined with a devotion to scientific procedures and a commitment to the search for discovery and understanding. As the Parapsychological Association (1985) concluded, “Parapsychology has a century- old tradition of bringing scientific imagination and rigor to the study of phenomena typically ignored by other investigators. Whatever the eventual outcome of this search may be, it can not help but add to the sum of knowledge about humanity and the human condition.”

In his wide- ranging book, The Future of the Body, Michael Murphy claims that “we live only part of the life we are given” (p. 3) and catalogs dozens of anecdotal and research reports to demonstrate what can be called the “latent reserve capacities” of the human brain and body. Parapsychological data are placed side by side with evidence from medicine, sports, the martial arts, and the behavioral and social sciences. The examples he gives of voluntary control, self- regulation, transformative practice, and extraordinary human experience indicate not only that “modern” science has overlooked many human potentials but that these capacities can provide practical avenues for an acceleration and betterment of human life.”

“Transmission electron micrograph of Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum showing the chain of magnetosomes inside the cell. The magnetosome chain is fixed in the cell and the interaction between the magnetic dipole moment associated with the chain and the local magnetic field causes the cell to be oriented along the magnetic field lines. Rotation of the cellular flagella causes the cell to migrate along the field lines. Bar equals 1 micron.’

by Alex Ansary  /  November 1, 2012

“There are microscopic particles in the human brain that modern science discovered only recently and has since become a subject of increased study and discovery. It’s called magnetite and it’s the most magnetic substance known to man.  It  exists in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and in the lining surrounding the brain and spinal cord and consists of five million magnetite crystals in each gram of brain tissue. Here’s how its created: In magnetite-containing bacteria,  magnetite crystals turn the bacteria into swimming needles that orient with respect to the earth’s magnetic fields.

In 1992 it was discovered by Dr. Joseph Kirschvink, a geologist and professor at the California Institute of Technology who said at the time that the discovery was sure to astound most scientists but what it’s doing there remains a mystery. Joseph encountered a number of funding obstacles from The National Institutes of Health but the research continued and has spawned deeper studies. For years scientists have been studying how  birds and fish are able to  navigate by using the earth’s magnetic field. Live Science reports that researchers discovered magnetite in the noses of rainbow trout. They believe that this may explain these and many other animals’ incredible ability to navigate across vast distances. “The strength of the crystals’ magnetic response, and their firm attachment to the surrounding cell membranes, lent strong support for what scientists have long suspected: That these crystals lean back and forth like a sail in response to Earth’s weak magnetic field, and that the cells they are embedded in somehow convey their swaying movements to the brain. This is believed to confer trout and other migratory animals with a ‘magnetic sense‘ by which to judge direction.”

Radical Pair
“For the sake of illustration we show the magnetic field-mediated pattern in grayscale alone (which would reflect the perceived pattern if the magnetic visual pathway is completely separated from the normal visual pathway) and added onto the normal visual image the bird would see, if magnetic and normal vision uses the same neuronal pathway in the retina.” 

Also in a Yahoo News column: “Some scientists are speculating that magnetic brain tissues in animals provide animals with some of their psychic abilities. Since the discovery of magnetite in the human brain and in other animals, some scientists are speculating that magnetic brain tissues in animals provide animals with some of their psychic abilities. For example, it is common for animals to behave abnormally just before a major earthquake, or disaster. Could the magnetite in their brains be responsible for the perception of subtle changes in the earths geomagnetic field?”

How might this relate to human behavior and perception? According to Einstein, matter is to be regarded itself as part, in fact the  principle part, of the electromagnetic field, and electric energy is therefore  the fundamental origin of our entire physical world. According to Kambiz Kamrani in a blog on “Magnetite  no doubtingly helps migratory species migrate successfully by allowing them to draw upon the earth’s magnetic fields. When it comes to humans, magnetite makes the ethmoid bone sensitive to the earth’s magnetic field and helps one’s sense of direction. Some have even suggested that this “compass” was helpful in human evolution as it made migration and hunting easier.”

fox mousing principle.JPGRange finder graphic: Hynek Burda

Shiva Neural at theorizes on the link between magnetite and telepathy: “In fact, our brains seem to have an entire magnetic system built into them. They were discovered in 1992, and so far, scientists have yet to understand their function, but one possibility is that they provide a basis for magnetic broadcasting of our brain’s information, in addition to whatever other functions they may have. To explain how the jumble of electrical activity, with all of its frequencies, pulses, bursts, ‘trains’ and even bits of random noise can be turned into meaningful information in another brain, we invoke the theory of holographic memory. This theory, though not universally accepted among scientists, has acquired acceptance in many fields. It says that our memories rely on holograms. Information packages in which each part contains all the information present in the whole system. The holographic theory of memory says that our memories, and even our experience of conscious awareness, consists of holograms existing in our minds. Each perception, each memory, each thought, each emotion, involves a whole, and cannot really be broken up into its parts. When we see the pattern of neural activation for one of the technologies that creates images of our brains activities (like PET, CAT, EEG, MRI), we are only seeing one of the parts. Like the brain, a holograph can store an enormous amount of information in a very small space. The earth’s magnetic field provides a medium for the transmission of information between brains. It’s not just that each brain can broadcast information about itself, it’s that all brains exist in one magnetic field. This can explain how information is transmitted between two brains, but not how people can sometimes get information from the future – precognition. For that, we need to indulge in some serious speculation, and to take note that this is where we leave the laboratory studies behind.”